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Mediterranean Transport and Logistics in a Post-Covid-19 Era: Prospects and Opportunities

Mediterranean Transport and Logistics in a Post-Covid-19 Era: Prospects and Opportunities

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Foreword
Sénen Florensa, President of the Executive Committee, European Institute of the Mediterranean

In the Western Mediterranean Basin, as in other areas of the world, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused governments to take intense measures to curtail socio-monetary sports over the past months. Consequently, motion regulations and the reduction of trade flows have severely impacted the shipping and logistics area. This main disruption because of the COVID-19 to the shipping gadget calls for a pause to analyse the priorities for the future and to construct on lessons learnt to manual the healing of the arena with the intention of improving its resilience and fostering its modernisation to enhance growth, innovation, and competitiveness.

Before the pandemic commenced, the transport and logistics zone became embedded in a manner of transformation to evolve more successfully and resiliently to the effects of weather trade, at the same time as looking to harness the new technological opportunities added in via the fourth industrial revolution. A renewed imaginative and prescient of globalisation, amid trade wars and tariff escalations, had also been gaining a foothold over the past years. The pandemic has just elevated those tendencies while compelling the actors of the world to adapt to new behaviours and practices in terms of tour, enterprise, urban transports, leisure, etc. In reality, the fragility of global deliver chains and the disruption of commercial routes, the extended and unavoidable reliance on virtual approach, the renewed and bolstered recognition on sustainability, all highlighted by way of the COVID-19 crisis for over a year now, are crucial modern elements that name for a deep mirrored image at the possibilities, opportunities, and challenges that watch for the shipping and logistics zone inside the context of a submit-COVID-19 Western Mediterranean.

Analysing how the COVID-19 pandemic has motivated to a lesser or extra volume shipping traits and open tactics, whether or not it’s going to exchange priorities, refocus goals or serve as a stimulus to simply embody the green and digital revolutions, is vital for the delivery and logistics area to hold playing its main position as motive force of the socio-economic improvement and nearby integration of the Western Mediterranean in a context of healing. Knowing with fact what new medium and long-time period eventualities will emerge from the pandemic is a hard venture. This prospective workout is nonetheless crucial to assist the arena higher put together and adapt itself to the post-COVID-19 realities, notably with useful inputs likely to guide the cooperation and public guidelines with a purpose to shape the future of the world inside the subregion.

The European Institute of the Mediterranean IEMed and the Centre for Transportation Studies for the Western Mediterranean CETMO have taken in this challenging project by launching an essential and timely initiative aiming at generating information and meals for thought concerning the brand new possibilities and capability post-COVID-19 scenarios which can rise up within the near destiny for the shipping and logistics region inside the Western Mediterranean. Untitled Mediterranean shipping and logistics in a publish-COVID 19 technology: possibilities and opportunities, the initiative’s declared ambition is to make a contribution to informing the reflections and selections of the actors and policymakers of the sector in the place.

This ebook is the final results of the paintings undertaken inside the framework of this initiative that accrued experts from one-of-a-kind expert backgrounds and Euro-Mediterranean international locations to speak about the influences of the COVID-19 and the destiny of shipping and logistics via multisectoral and multidisciplinary lenses. Building on the networks of the CETMO and the IEMed, the publication offers a unique mixture of complementary perspectives and analyses, in addition to valuable policy recommendations a good way to certainly generate interest among Western Mediterranean policymakers.

This booklet, released as a coverage examine, comes within the framework of the MedThink 5+5 network of Western Mediterranean think tanks. Since its inception in May 2016, the network gives a multidisciplinary platform of debate associated with the Western Mediterranean Forum, also called the five+five Dialogue, with the purpose to foster regional integration by informing the discussions of specialists and policymakers on key troubles of the subregional time table. Based upon the mandate conferred at the IEMed through the Valletta Declaration of the Western Mediterranean Forum from October 2012, the MedThink 5+five community, that is coordinated via the IEMed, has organised all through a lot of these years special annual fora and thematic seminars in which experts from the complete of the place analysed the factors underpinning monetary, human, and sustainable improvement, in addition to protection and balance inside the Western Mediterranean.

Considering transport and logistics as one of the most critical sectors structuring cooperation, socio-economic development, and regional integration within the Western Mediterranean, the MedThink five+five network has been committed to fostering debate and know-how-sharing on the problem, building upon the help and understanding of the CETMO as Technical Secretariat of the Group of Transport Ministers for the Western Mediterranean GTMO 5+five, bringing specialists, academics, and practitioners towards the policymaking.

As an example of this dedication, the MedThink five+5 community, in collaboration with CETMO, organised with main experts, policymakers and stakeholders a primary thematic seminar associated with delivery, which was held in Nouakchott (Mauritania) on the sidelines of the 9th Conference of Ministers of Transport of the five+five Dialogue international locations in December 2018 under the name The street towards integration: transport and logistics in the Western Mediterranean: Tools and tasks for the implementation of a multimodal community within the 5+5 vicinity.

Following this primary version and building upon the prevailing initiative Mediterranean delivery and logistics in a postCOVID 19 era: prospects and possibilities, the MedThink five+5 network, together with the IEMed and the CETMO, organises a second thematic seminar devoted to the delivery and logistics quarter in Malta. Taking advantage of the tenth Conference of Ministers of Transport of the five+five Dialogue hung on 10 October 2021 in La Valletta Malta, the seminar, entitled The Western Mediterranean Transport and Logistics Sector inside the put up-COVID-19 Era: Seizing New Opportunities, Accelerating Transitions is conceived as the herbal extension of the discussions taking location in this coverage have a look at.

In this context, this Policy Study seeks to function a tool to inform and guide the reflections and discussions of the ministerial amassing of the 5+5 Dialogue contributors, in addition to future projects and rules. Finally, by means of disseminating the research performed through selected pupils and professionals inside the framework of the joint initiative led by means of the MedThink five+5 network and CETMO, the e-book ambitions at building a local collective intelligence, which, via defining priorities and devising local and transnational regulations and strategies, can actually sell the variation of the delivery and logistics region to the publish-COVID19 Western Mediterranean.

This book comprises all the thirty articles that have been commissioned in the framework of the joint initiative led via the MedThink five+five community and CETMO. With the aim of giving a clear image of the Mediterranean realities calling for greater regional cooperation on transport, each of those articles attempt to observe the political, transnational, environmental, social, and financial affects on the shipping and logistic quarter precipitated by the COVID-19 pandemic from one of a kind multidisciplinary angles.

In unique, the primary bankruptcy consists of seven articles that delve around 4 cross-slicing subjects with regards to the transport and logistics region in a postCOVID-19 context, namely geopolitics, nearby integration and worldwide exchange, sustainability, and virtual revolution. The 2nd chapter encompasses 4 articles that are trying to find to analyse the functioning and priorities of the modern-day delivery and logistic systems while drawing some policy guidelines to higher put together and adapt the world to the submit-COVID-19 realities. From bankruptcy three to chapter seven, fifteen articles searching for to assess the socio-economic influences of the COVID-19 pandemic to distinct shipping modes, namely road, rail, maritime, air, and urban delivery, even as identifying some instructions learned and drawing conclusions which can serve to face destiny disruptions with more coordination. Moreover, the majority of these articles will shed some mild on the continued adaptation strategies of each of those delivery modes to the digital revolution, the decarbonisation assignment and the procedures of vertical and horizontal integration. The ultimate bankruptcy, which incorporates 4 articles, specializes in how the COVID-19 pandemic hardly ever hit logistics chains global and affected the distribution of products in key sectors of pastime, while analysing the opportunities and demanding situations to enhance the contemporary multimodal logistic systems with the aid of greedy the scope of digitalisation and sustainability methods in a submit-COVID-19 technology.

Chapter 1: Global and Regional Trends
COVID-19 regarded at a time whilst global society became beginning to consciously face the combat against weather alternate as one of the tremendous challenges to assure the survival of the planet. Furthermore, there has been also the start of the fourth industrial revolution concept, linked to the digital revolution and new approaches of integrating generation into societies. It will be exciting to peer how COVID-19 will affect these delivery developments and open procedures, whether it’ll trade priorities or, serve as a stimulus for greater attention and implementation.

One of the first effects of COVID-19 on the shipping and logistics sector become the visibility of the fragility of global deliver chains. This opened a public debate on the need to trade the triumphing supply chain models which will make them extra robust and dependable, and reduce their dependencies. Furthermore, it’s far interesting to reflect on what modifications, on a geopolitical and governance stage, can be derived from all of those approaches, and whether those modifications are transitory or, right here to live.

Mediterranean Logistics Post-COVID-19: Opportunities Come with challenges
Anwar Zibaoui, General Coordinator, Association of the Mediterranean Chambers of Commerce and Industry (ASCAME)

We are facing a task so as to change the arena. As nations take crucial measures to guard their populations, no zone remains proof against change. Closed borders, telework, tour bans and confinement. The coronavirus outbreak is redefining how we stay connected. And with a fifth of the planet already isolated, it’s miles imperative to preserve the flow of goods so that essential materials can get where they’re needed. The global logistics enterprise faces its biggest challenge.

The COVID-19 outbreak has expanded the importance of supply chains in responding to wishes in actual time and within the transportation of goods, whether or not in handling the increase in on-line retail demand or keeping the deliver of scientific components and sparkling products. The COVID-19 pandemic has proven that logistics wishes to conform to construct more potent deliver chains. We all rely upon them to achieve meals safety, health and balance, as their challenge is to maintain people secure and agencies operational, at the same time as clients adapt to the new demanding situations.

Trade keeps the arena connected. Maritime shipping, where eighty% of the products and 50% of the oil fed on flow into (UNCTAD, 2018), is of crucial significance in global geopolitics. In addition, delivery and logistics promote cooperation and improvement. In developing countries, aggressive logistics could assist solve migration, radicalisation or task advent troubles. Without a doubt, economic system is an critical lever to combat poverty, inequality, and remedy determined socioeconomic conditions.

The pandemic has made the fourth commercial revolution a reality for hundreds of thousands of human beings. The contours of a brand new horizon are being configured. The digital future will create new opportunities for humans, agencies and governments. But if mismanaged, it will additionally bring new threats, polarisations between societies or divergent economies. The current economic models need to provide new answers, since the prevailing measures aren’t enough. More monetary integration, emergency plans and sensible answers are had to clear up endemic issues.

The value of the undertaking makes the existing measures inadequate. Without an effective logistics sector, the economy cannot expand. An efficient logistics reduces prices in export, import and distribution in the home marketplace. It is the lever for growth and competitiveness. Internationalisation requires emphasising the general overall performance of distribution and deliver networks, however additionally the regionalisation of sectors that gain from geographic proximity and financial complementarity.

Furthermore, the arena is devoted and has reacted by using prioritising essential medical components, maintaining the float of fresh products and improving the use of technologies. The attempt to preserve alternate has been global. Governments and airport authorities across the world are enforcing strict guidelines, consisting of extended disinfection, whilst protecting the protection and health of the personnel. We ought to thank workers and corporations within the region for his or her creativity, innovation and determination to preserve the deliver chain operational, agile and strong on this time of disaster.

Beyond the immediately assignment, tasks should be urgently promoted to make trade flows more strong. The production of virtual structures might be critical to evolve to this new form of disaster in the long time. The digitised supply chain, in addition to the global network of ports, terminals and economic zones, will guarantee the transportation of shipment from one vicinity to any other via just one click. New technology are using on-line logistics and permitting smarter trade, with extra efficiency for the duration of the deliver chain and extra visibility and transparency; in turn allowing the movement of goods to be optimised and redirected to in which they’re maximum wished.

This pandemic comes at a key moment. The worldwide logistics zone is booming, with a greater demand for service from clients, the emergence of new competition, the overview of logistics tactics and their incorporation into the digital revolution. Great challenges await us, inclusive of the use of large facts to successfully control logistics flows or the implementation of online structures that optimise the volumes of shipment transported.

Logistics is one of the important columns of guide for the non-stop development of economies and its indicator of global competence. The growing internationalisation of operations calls for a unique emphasis on the global performance of distribution and deliver networks.

Trade logistics, or the potential of countries and agencies to export products to global markets, is a key ingredient for monetary competitiveness, boom, and poverty reduction. Poor logistics overall performance creates a sunk loss for producers and consumers alike, and consequences in a net lack of resources. Improved exchange logistics, however, could give a tremendous boost to the economy at a time of fragile healing from the global recession. Logistics is vital to flourish the financial system or even the populace to survive. For example, transportation and logistics directly affect the price and neighborhood availability of meals. In growing countries, the effect of shipping and logistics are between 20-60% at the expenses of food added (World Bank, 2012). They constitute for some international locations 40% of the cost of imported wheat. So, at a time of high prices for meals and uncooked substances, enhancing and improving the logistics region is necessary. Competitiveness is likewise the result of reduced shipping time and prices.

Global change is moving, and the centuries-old version that saw maritime powers located in the Western international control cargo flows through is giving way to a more multidirectional and multimodal destiny.

In this new dynamic, China starts to exert a extra impact on global trade. The launch of the New Silk Road, an initiative with an investment of multi-trillion dollars, aims to reshape intercontinental trade through a brand new community of land and sea connections between Asia, Europe and Africa, primarily based on the vintage trade routes. The Mediterranean holds the key. China’s expansion to advantage supremacy inside the location’s ports does no longer forestall growing.

2000 years in the past, the first idea of loose port become created between Chaldeans, Phoenicians and Carthaginians to facilitate trade. But the Mare Nostrum runs the chance of losing its management notwithstanding its advantages. The Mediterranean is positioned proper where Asia, Europe and Africa are very near each other, which makes this sea not most effective a neighbour for close by regions, but additionally for the arena.

In addition, each within the Mediterranean and global, the load of the sector is crucial. Logistics need to be powerful due to the fact, with out this, the economic system can not expand. Efficient logistics will make contributions to lowering the total cost of products for export, import and distribution in the home market. It is without a doubt blood for the economy and a real lever for growth and competitiveness.

The maritime electricity model that has been wearing cargoes throughout the high seas for hundreds of years is giving way to a more multidirectional and multimodal future. The global transport map will change. It is vital and urgent to guess at the 2030 Agenda and on a sustainable model. 23% of CO2 emissions are attributed to transport (World Bank, 2016), so the commonplace priority is to transport in the direction of greater performance and eco-sustainability at some point of the Mediterranean vicinity.

The shipping industry desires to set its own difficult but doable voluntary CO2 reduction goals for the maritime sector or hazard goals being imposed. Shippers are under increasing stress to respond to the weather exchange undertaking. “They need to recognize, screen and document their supply chain carbon footprint for you to meet their reporting and regulatory duties,” stated GSF (Global Shippers Forum, 2015). “However, they’re depending on the shipping enterprise to provide correct records on emissions and the GSF believes urgent action is now needed to agree targets. It is essential to choose a degree with a view to incentivise technical and operational measures to reduce CO2 and not truely bypass on extra costs to shippers” (GSF, 2019).

The Mediterranean has greater than 450 ports and terminals, represents 30% of global maritime exchange via quantity, and is the leading tourist vacation spot inside the global (UfM, 2016). It is the point of confluence of three continents (Africa, Asia and Europe), where 500 million human beings live. From this new situation, a large platform with specific traits may additionally emerge to facilitate world exchange.

This strategic place is unique to facilitate international trade and logistics. But the local economic ability desires to be unlocked. For this, we need to guess on integration and construct a unified strategy that encourages investments, construction, modernisation and management of infrastructures, that also permits increase and competition with another area.

It is urgent to develop the interconnection of the South, create a verbal exchange network efficient land, air and maritime delivery, and promote multimodal corridors. Here the Mediterranean corridor must be paramount. The vicinity has a excellent potential to build up intermodal answers attractive maritime and railway sources with other modes of shipping to boom its global freight volumes and viability. What stays to be executed is to sell and preserve emerging intermodal demands via the supply of a felony framework and monetary or regulatory incentives, as a way to foster intermodal shipping, that can most effective come actual with a nearby alliance and its partnership with Europe. A roadmap is needed to allow a more green and sustainable increase of intermodal operations.

After the COVID-19 pandemic, globalisation is wounded. For this motive, we advise going in the direction of the regionalisation of the economic system, making a bet at the sectors that gain from geographic proximity and monetary complementarity. Regional economic integration and the creation of a commonplace Euro-Mediterranean Economic partnership ought to be objectives to be finished to stand the brand new and postpandemic demanding situations.

The monetary and social significance of logistics and the awareness of its shortcomings in the Mediterranean, require a strategic imaginative and prescient shared through public and personal actors. A national and local coverage articulated with professional players that integrates the opposite strategic targets (ecological transition, enterprise, nearby planning, …) is also needed, as well as a sustainable organisational method and logistical planning of the territory, articulated with a new commercial policy reoriented on European, Mediterranean and African exchanges.

The pandemic has made the 4.0 industrial revolution a reality for millions of people. The contours of a new horizon are being configured and the virtual destiny will create new opportunities for people, businesses and governments. It is crucial to guide logistically the relocation of a positive range of commercial sports, via encouraging the nearby Mediterranean financial system and business clustering and through strengthening shorter, more reactive and extra resilient supply chains. A new industrial and logistics cooperation, extra balanced between Europe and the Mediterranean, is also crucial.

For the Mediterranean and Europe to regain sovereignty, logistics must be taken into consideration at the best stage of the State, with ok governance and assets. The fulfillment of the arena can’t be verified without the incorporation of girls into qualified jobs, in particular in fields that are historically male dominated.

Betting on Mediterranean integration would trade tendencies and benefit each person. It could appeal to worldwide organizations, boom exports, and increase the introduction of local jobs and organizations. Closing the present gaps among Mediterranean seashores will not be clean however attaining it would suggest a greater effective delivery community, greater exchange and improvement. The place has the capability and ambition to emerge as a key participant on the global logistics scene.

The funding desires in Mediterranean region inside the quarter are envisioned to be around 2% of GDP, a sum that the general public quarter cannot cope with and the contribution of the private sector may be essential.

To reach a successful conclusion, it’s miles vital to triumph over the limitations and work to deepen the partnership on the way to better control the demanding situations of development and favour reforms on this regard, strengthen the capability of global establishments to take risks in financing infrastructure and facilitating the get entry to of monetary organisations and operators making a bet on a more function of the non-public zone should assist in this way.

25 years after the launch of the Barcelona Process, and provided the essential mechanisms to boost up the deliberate terms for the access into pressure of the Euro-Mediterranean Association, the delivery and logistics area is considered an monetary pillar and an critical component for this integration of all priority motion tasks.

The need to invest in the Mediterranean logistics sector is a using force for improvement, which will be extra if numerous factors, such as the improvement of infrastructure, the private quarter and the complementarity of networks between each aspects, are reinforced. Joining the dots throughout such a lot of Mediterranean international locations isn’t always easy. The result might be a extra effective transport infrastructure, more exchange and improvement, and a more potent and extra united Mediterranean.

Moreover, we want to reinforce cooperation on shipping regulation and expand infrastructure to attach the 2 facets of the Mediterranean Sea. Transport is a key vector for accomplishing nearer market integration and contributing to local integration, economic growth, employment, tourism and elevated nearby trade. In the context of profound trade in the Mediterranean region, delivery cooperation among the EU and its neighbours is crucial and desires to be supported.

Relations in the subject of shipping between the European Union and its southern partners had been formally set up in 1995 with the Barcelona Process. The key priority of this cooperation is the success of a secure, sustainable and green transport machine in the Euro-Mediterranean area.

The future of the vicinity relies upon on the potential to evolve to new realities, construct bridges, create assembly spaces to transform this hazard into an opportunity and turn weak point into strength. This would allow nicely going through the demanding situations, growing a commonplace destiny by means of adding capabilities and making use of this synergy to the search for new paths.

The venture of making this sea a awesome platform capable of competing with other areas can be hard however not not possible. This can simplest emerge as a truth in an alliance among each seashores on this Mare Nostrum.

It is time to act to reposition the Mediterranean as the extremely good logistics platform for east-west flows and as the pleasant choice to channel shipment between Asia, Africa and Europe. Logistics has never been as important as today.

References

The Sustainability of Transport and Logistics inside the Mediterranean
Eduard Rodés, Director, Escola Europea – Intermodal Transport

The idea of sustainability, even though opened to many interpretations, may be understood as based totally on elements. The first is the transport network, that’s, at European level, fundamentally based via the work finished in current years through the European Commission (EC) on the TransEuropean Transportation Network (TEN-T) and which always conditions that of its neighbouring international locations, and therefore via extension Mediterranean countries. The transport community is one of the three networks which can be important for financial and social development. The 2nd detail is made from the electricity and telecommunications networks, that are factors of the digitalisation method. The delivery network is dependent on the opposite , each in phrases of efficiency and sustainability.

The efforts to improve the idea of sustainability are based at the approval by using the United Nations (UN) Assembly of the 2030 Agenda in September 2015, based by way of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). Sustainable development can not be understood with out simultaneously considering the interrelationship among the special dreams. Spending greater time looking to scrutinise the elements related to Goal thirteen on climate exchange, or Goal nine, which deals with industry, innovation and infrastructure in this text might not be wise, as they rely to a broad extent on the alternative 15 desires and their mutual interactions to attain the targets. It is maximum probable that the problem to remedy isn’t always pollution or sustainability however the results we are going through from our movements inside the past two centuries. The underlying trouble is our manner of life and the habits we’ve acquired. This is wherein the COVID-19 pandemic has pressured our societies to examine themselves within the reflect. It can now be understood that another manner of establishing our societies is possible and that the entirety is extra ephemeral and fragile than previously idea.

Sustainability has become one of the critical elements in shaping the guidelines of all international locations. The United Nations, with its Agenda 2030 initiative, and the European Union (EU) with the Green Deal, has set the direction for an extremely low-carbon society in 2050. The COVID-19 has similarly reinforced the need to perform this sustainability revolution. The street beforehand will no longer be easy and could inevitably lead to drastic adjustments within the configuration of the transport and logistics region.

A World in Transition
The COVID-19 regarded within the center of a duration of strong transition. Time will tell if there is a alternate of cycle, leaving behind the silicon and statistics duration, and moved closer to robotics, synthetic intelligence, and simulation fashions in virtual environments. Now, the systems we’re growing are organized to mixture much extra facts than we’ve got ever had. The programmes can analyse it and simulate eventualities on which to base choices, a good deal extra as it should be than those we’d have been able to make without their help. This transition is taking location inside the 3 networks previously diagnosed (shipping, electricity and telecommunications) and as a result of their evolution.

The Energy Transition
The Mediterranean, like the rest of the sector, faces the need to are searching for out renewable strength sources. The intake of hydrocarbons and electricity produced with fossil fuels is achieving the stop of the cycle. Governments face the need to are searching for alternatives with a view to preserve economic hobby at the same time as reducing the environmental impact of emissions. Energy efficiency and the innovative penetration of renewable energies need to allow economic reactivation in the quick time period and, on the same time, permit for the consolidation of the value chain related to their deployment. They are also the pillars of decarbonisation, which gives a boost to the relaxation of the sectors at the same time as enhancing business and industrial competitiveness through a downward fee direction.

The power transition additionally promotes the implementation and development of new technologies, that are essential for handling the call for for energy and the deliver of safety in a one hundred% renewable device, in an enterprise section wherein the Mediterranean has the capacity to gather leading positions.

The development of hybrid flora allows for more flexibility. Different kinds of technology can coexist within the equal system, which can already be visible, for example, in wind electricity flora utilising solar panels. In such instances, the strength can be disbursed using the same connection point and the get right of entry to capacity already granted, provided that the technical necessities are met.

According to the Observatoire Méditerranéen de l’Energie (OME), “it’s miles predicted that energy call for according to capita will growth with the aid of 62% in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean countries by means of 2040 (the usage of 2018 as the reference yr). The Mediterranean area is also experiencing severe industrialisation and increase in tourism, setting extra stress on available power assets” (UfM, 2019).

These regional challenges, if adequately addressed, may be turned into commercial enterprise opportunities that could make contributions to a sustainable strength transition. The Mediterranean is rich in renewable power resources, inclusive of wind, solar and water. Therefore, it has the ability to sell the transition to extra sustainable and low-carbon energy systems. There is likewise the capacity to boom power performance through the development of latest technology that allow, as an example, strength-saving and storage. Moreover, the development of gasoline and energy transmission interconnections will lead to the modern integration of energy markets in the area, which is an possibility for international locations to higher address the strength protection challenges.

The problem is addressed from numerous perspectives relying at the “community” from which it is analysed. The most visible nowadays is the metropolis, that’s currently undergoing a manner of good sized modifications because of the evolution of distribution due to the speedy boom of e-trade (further improved by means of theCOVID-19).

Ports have initiated determined shifts toward an strength transition in their territories. This has led to the emergence of professions along with officers in charge of the energy transition. The operating programmes go through the extraordinary factors that make up power consumption and their resources of production.

The first problem is a legislative framework that has been evolved to pressure the transition even as keeping a sure rate of deployment. A second factor pertains to savings and efficiency guidelines, as those are factors that can be carried out at once and with high-quality outcomes if used effectively. A third difficulty pertains to energy resources, and widespread adjustments have already been made in recent years in this regard. Gas has performed a leading position within the closing ten years, and during this era gaspowered ships have been constructed, deliver structures for trucks were developed, and a few tests with port equipment have been installed.

One of the vital aspects that situation the implementation procedure of low-sulphur fuels with low CO2 emissions is the possibility of the Mediterranean being declared an Emission Control Area (ECA). This is one of the most swiftly converting eventualities for the future. The Mediterranean can be an ECA location no later than 2024, as determined at the meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Barcelona Convention (COP21) held in December 2019 in Naples. The settlement will result in the presentation of the idea at the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) in 2022.

This is a full-size undertaking for the shipping organizations, which have been working at the emission reduction elements for years. In 2018, the IMO adopted Resolution 304(seventy two) at the initial strategy for the discount of greenhouse fuel (GHG) emissions from ships, which set a discount of forty% by using 2030 and 70% by using 2050. The lifespan of a vessel is approximately 30 years, so instances must be calculated taking this into account (IMO, 2018).

Today’s massive gasoline households also are in transition. Liquefied herbal gas is evolving in the direction of biomethane and hydrogen, biodiesel to second and 0.33-generation biofuels, liquid petroleum fuel to biogases, and bioethanol to synthetic ones. In all instances, it’ll be vital for ships to devote more space to garage, as the electricity power is lower, and they will want a better amount for a end result similar to what’s attained using traditional fuels.

Maritime delivery inside the Mediterranean is taken into consideration to be “Short Sea Shipping”, which in flip represents eighty% of the world’s fleet and one of the major contributors to air nice in port cities. Ports within the Mediterranean are typically located in big cities and perform alongside them, seeking a balance among the benefits of having a port that gives a service and the risks of port-associated operations. What is apparent is that Short Sea Shipping is configured as a network within the region wherein it operates. Ships from the Southern Mediterranean paintings with the international locations of the North and vice versa. Therefore, the regulations so one can be implemented will always have an effect on almost all operations. It seems clean that governments will use coercive measures to pressure a rapid pass closer to carbonneutral solutions.

At found in Spain, gas is at the vanguard with a prepared infrastructure to be able to make it viable to attain 2035 with out the need to put money into this concept. For operators, it’s miles worthwhile due to the fact they need to undergo a enormous preliminary investment to adapt their ships. Still, the price of gas is more low-budget, permitting a go back on investment in a especially short time.

In current months, hydrogen has been gaining ground as an opportunity to traditional fuels in maritime delivery for several motives. It is ample and to be had everywhere. In a gasoline cellular, the generated waste is O2 and water. As a fuel, it has 0 emissions, isn’t always toxic, isn’t always a greenhouse fuel, may be made out of renewable resources, and is a source for other fuels including efuels and blue fuels. We will must get used to new nomenclatures such as “Green Hydrogen” made from renewable energies or “Blue Hydrogen” generated from gas, which generates CO2 inside the production procedure this is captured and stored in underground deposits. Hydrogen has the disadvantage of being tough to store and delivery, and includes complementary factors inclusive of ammonium, ethanol and octane. Ammonia stands out as it’s miles a substance that does not incorporate carbon in its molecule and therefore does no longer generate CO2 emissions at some stage in its decomposition response, besides being the second maximum-produced chemical compound global after sulphuric acid.

Research is currently underway for the subsequent decomposition of ammonia for its use with catalysts. These encompass graphene, which because of its traits can be an ideal candidate. From a Mediterranean factor of view, it’s miles clean that strength assets based specifically on solar electricity and gas offer a big aggressive benefit, as the adjustments which can be expected to occur are exceptionally fast.

The Digital Transition
To recognize what is taking place in telecommunications systems, it’s miles really worth analysing the function that they’ve performed throughout the pandemic. It is now not a query of seeing how era evolves within the field of communications and how it’ll affect us. It is about realising that society has been re-established round a one of a kind manner of creating and retaining relationships, driven presently with the aid of the pandemic, which, we all assume, will stay as a new shape of interaction. The pandemic has elevated the virtual transition, as a result reconfiguring human and environmental relationships. At the expense of proximity, a few interactions had been more suitable and our environmental impact reduced. During this period, a reasonably excessive degree of tutorial pastime has been correctly maintained. International initiatives were supported, many humans have teleworked, and the truth is that it seems that pretty some will hold to accomplish that, even though only partly, for the foreseeable future (if not for all time). Interestingly, none of this will had been viable with out a sizeable improvement in digitalisation.

Two clean consequences of this pandemic had been the drastic discount in mobility and the exponential increase in e-trade and door-todoor income. All of it became possible, based totally on a running device supported with the aid of telematics and the digitalisation of documentation and related information. Everything that become being evolved inside the international of transport has improved swiftly, and where earlier than anybody became putting boundaries in the manner, now anybody is seeking out answers. If something might be executed telematically, it become done, whether it was administrative boards or own family meetings. Some adjustments could be greater disruptive, such as the 5G era with a view to permit exchanges of information in actual time. This is understandable as there can be no latencies in communications. This is related to the vital improvement of robotic approaches.

Another vital factor linked to the strength network is its management and use. The “Smart Grid” idea is based on a shape of efficient energy management that uses laptop technology to optimise the production and distribution of power, to better balance deliver and call for among manufacturers and clients, and to enhance the safety and great of deliver following the necessities of the digital age. Better energy control will make it feasible to create energy communities in an effort to self-manage their production and intake. Initiatives in this route are being taken into consideration inside the Port of Barcelona itself, however the idea is going in addition. This capability for information and control that a computerised global permits offers rise to extraordinary structures of governance, dependence and resilience. Fortunately, it is not a query of technology which might be hard to get right of entry to for the international locations of the Mediterranean basin, which already have the important power and knowledge.

Digitalisation has a essential effect on shipping. Advances in digital mapping systems, fleet and transportation control and the development of mobility management networks are remodeling its landscape. Each shipping gadget has its community. For land transport, the European Commission is working with the “Intelligent Transport System”, which permits an incorporated gadget of records for site visitors, protection, efficiency and sustainability. In quick, it’s far operating on the efficient control of the delivery network primarily based at the mass collection of data and interplay with the vehicles and drivers themselves.

In the maritime international, the Safe Sea Net, the vessel site visitors tracking in EU waters, managed with the aid of the “European Maritime Safety Agency”, is gaining significance. Through it, it’s far feasible to monitor the movement of ships within the Mediterranean, which in flip makes it viable to control environmental factors with the Clean Sea Net service. The European Commission has continued to improve single window structures with a new initiative born at the height of the pandemic, particularly the “EU Single Window Environment for Customs”, which aims to facilitate the moves of the various public administrations concerned inside the clearance of goods getting into and leaving the Union.

The ports have entered a duration of digitalisation of all their operations and territories. The Internet of factors (IoT) has made it less complicated to have a big quantity of information available, which in turn has made it possible to create a expertise base on which to assist a whole lot extra green control structures. Ships have emerge as state-of-the-art centres of sensors and information mills, producing and transmitting data from anywhere, frequently in actual time. At the identical time, advances in satellite communications are improving connectivity, taking into account big increases in the volumes of facts transferred at an ever-decrease price.

The Transition of the Transport Network
Finally, the transition of the shipping network, supported through infrastructure and bodily characteristics, and which consist of ships, trains and vans, and based around electricity and data, needs to be addressed. When speakme about delivery inside the Mediterranean, we want to speak about what the European Commission defines as the Motorways of the Sea and Short Sea Shipping. The Commission is thinking about the introduction of a single European maritime area and, in a way, a Mediterranean area. For the Commission’s Motorways of the Sea Coordinator, Kurt Bodewig, the second one pillar of the 3 pillars of its method stresses the want to ensure easy maritime shipping via enhancing multimodal connectivity, and thus ensuring better connections to the TEN-T corridors and higher hyperlinks with neighbouring countries (European Commission, 2020). This programme became launched in July 2020. It displays the ideas of the new legislature of the European Parliament adopted in June 2019, and the suggestions set by way of the President of the European Commission, Ursula von der Leyen, and the “Green Deal” programme, that’s already placing the agenda for all the international locations of the Union. It is crucial to word that the transport sector has been dramatically stricken by the measures to include the pandemic. The continuity of services has been ensured by using transport workers underneath difficult conditions, showing that their function is crucial in serving the vital needs of the population. By extension, the shipping zone will also be crucial in helping the put up-COVID-19 financial recovery. This will specially depend upon the maritime and port shipping sectors, with cruise, ferry and Ro-Pax operators being the maximum affected.

The area faces large challenges: on the only hand, an evolution towards a concept of mobility as a carrier, which implies the fundamental management of facts structures and approach of transport oriented to the carrier of mobility; and, on the other, and usually beneath the equal principles, synchro modality and the physical Internet. These demanding situations are two new methods of visualising freight and passenger delivery in which digitalisation, and smooth energies will play a fundamental role.

Conclusions
The transitions inside the strength, telecommunications and transport networks pose a disruptive exchange within the shipping region. Companies will must reconfigure their strategies because they will have to exchange their approach to adapt to the new situation, and control structures will be increasingly more based at the digitalisation of operations, with artificial intelligence applying to their every day activities. This brings approximately new opportunities for agencies and the access of new gamers from one of a kind markets. These new gamers may have competitive blessings over the rest, some thing that has already been witnessed in other sectors. Mobility will stay a fundamental element in development however might be adapted to a brand new truth that has emerged from the COVID-19 pandemic. Companies will have to reconfigure among the expert profiles to adapt them to the brand new truth and to favour the brand new capabilities in order to be required for a round financial system. These are what we call “Blue Skills”. Training to deal with this transition can be a important element in facilitating that transition.

Energy expenses will trade very extensively. Solar power will advantage prominence, giving a aggressive benefit to countries with deserts, where solar electricity performance may be very excessive. This is an notable advantage for the Southern Mediterranean countries. These price fluctuations will doubtlessly motive instability for a sure length.

Sustainability becomes the driving force toward monetary recovery. The challenge of building a new sustainable society will mark the agendas and efforts of the publish-COVID-19 technology, that is tons greater open and privy to the demanding situations that we can ought to face.

It is simply too soon to understand how the COVID19 will affect public shipping. It nevertheless appears that the pandemic will ultimate for a while, although greater desire has emerged with the emergency approvals of the new vaccines in a few nations, which ought to assist conquer it. Transport will alternate, mainly, because it already needed to exchange without or with the COVID-19. It will do so with environmentally pleasant mobility and be extra adapted to serving human beings and items thanks to non-polluting fuels and synthetic intelligence digitalisation techniques. Change is on the Blue Horizon in advance, so let us sail towards it sustainably collectively.

References

The Impact of the New Global Regionalism on Production, Transport and Logistics Systems
Marco Ricceri, Secretary General, Eurispes Istituto di Studi Politici Economici e Sociali

The Commitments of the G20-2020 to Relaunch Global Development
In the Final Leader’s Declaration of the G20 Summit (2020), chaired with the aid of Saudi Arabia and held in Riyadh on 21-22 November 2020, the heads of state and authorities made, amongst other things, unique commitments for the sectors of international exchange, shipping and tour, investments in infrastructure. Important commitments, it should be said without delay, also for the possibilities for relaunching improvement within the Mediterranean area.

For example, in factor 12 of the file, regarding change, the dedication to hold the entire opening of the markets is definitely said: “Supporting the multilateral trading machine is now as crucial as ever. We try to understand the aim of a loose, honest, inclusive, non-discriminatory, obvious, predictable, and strong exchange and funding surroundings, and to keep our markets open” (p. Three). Also in point 13, on delivery and travel, a comparable commitment is said, aimed at ensuring the protection of the device’s openness: “We commit to making sure that global transportation routes and supply chains stay open, secure, and comfortable, and that any restrictive measures associated with COVID-19, which include for air and sea crews, are focused, proportionate, transparent, brief, and according with duties beneath international agreements” (p. 4). In factor 15, on investments in infrastructure, it is explicitly identified that:

Infrastructure is a motive force of increase and prosperity and is essential to promoting financial recuperation and resilience. We suggest the G20 Riyadh InfraTech Agenda which promotes using generation in infrastructure, with the intention of improving funding selections, improving price for money, and promoting best infrastructure investments for the transport of higher social, financial and environmental consequences (p. Four).

Very great the reference made to the role of institutional traders, to multilateral improvement banks MDBs, in addition to to the compliance with the ideas on the best of infrastructure investments inside the same factor 15:

“In line with the G20 Roadmap for Infrastructure as an Asset Class, we welcome the G20/OECD Report on the Collaboration with Institutional Investors and Asset Managers on Infrastructure Investment, which displays buyers’ view on issues and demanding situations affecting non-public funding in infrastructure and affords policy options to address them. We stay up for exploring alternatives to continue this paintings in a flexible manner and without duplications with different projects, with the participation of interested MDBs and international companies. We will strengthen the work associated with the G20 Principles for Quality Infrastructure Investment (p. 4).

These precise sectoral commitments are part of a broader framework of strengthening collaboration between states that the G20-2020 summit confirmed as the most effective manner ahead to address the results of the global pandemic disaster, “to conquer the present day demanding situations and comprehend possibilities of the 21ts century” (Final Leader’s Declaration of the G20 Summit, 2020). The fee of this orientation, which introduces factors of positivity in a framework of international opposition hitherto characterised through strong geopolitical and geoeconomic tensions, were regarded and sanctioned by comparable commitments undertaken, for example, at the XII summit of the BRICS coordination (Brazil, Russia, India China, South Africa, however all member states also of the G20) held in Moscow on November 17, 2020, some days before the G20 summit. After recognising the G20 coordination role “as the most advantageous forum for worldwide financial cooperation and coordinated movement to overcome the cutting-edge international challenges” (XII BRICS Summit Moscow Declaration, 2020, par. 50), the BRICS states, which are additionally very energetic inside the Mediterranean region, have confirmed the dedication to intensify their projects inside the important regions of recuperation: strengthening of change, funding regulations in infrastructures, digital economic system and electricity. In particular, with regard to the infrastructure region, the decision changed into taken to arrange a data and facts center, participated by the 5 member states, with a “Common Data Room” (Point fifty seven) to have a continuously up to date and shared photo of the main requests and initiatives of infrastructural interventions with a purpose to prompt a activate collaboration with non-public operators (Public-Private-Partnership PPP) and specially with the banking global.

Finally, it ought to be emphasised that the Final Leader’s Declaration of the G20 Summit (2020) additionally remembers the importance of a few signs and symptoms of restoration within the global economic system, despite the fact that the forecast framework for the close to destiny remains marked by means of brilliant uncertainty. Thus, point variety four of the report states:

While the worldwide economy skilled a pointy contraction in 2020 due to the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic, worldwide economic activity has partially picked up as our economies regularly reopened and the positive impact of our sizeable coverage moves started to materialize. However, the restoration is uneven, surprisingly uncertain and subject to elevated downside dangers, together with the ones arising from renewed virus outbreaks in a few economies, with some nations reintroducing restrictive health measures (p. 1).

A Safe Recovery however Full of Uncertainties
This mixture of factors of uncertainty and elements of secure restoration at this stage characterises the forecasts of the fundamental monetary centers in regards each to the evolution of the economic systems as an entire, and to the unique quarter of transport and logistics. Here are some significant examples.

International Monetary Fund (IMF)
According to the latest document of the International Monetary Fund on economic growth (IMF, 2020), posted on thirteen October 2020, the world financial system will file a contraction of -four.4% in global GDP at the quit of 2020, slightly less intense than the -5.2% anticipated at ultimate June. For 2021, on the other hand, a rebound in international activity is expected with + 5.2%, furnished that the virus gives respite. Otherwise, the information could be a lot worse. Between now and 2025, it is anticipated that the overall lack of manufacturing inside the international will quantity to 28 trillion dollars: an remarkable slowdown for the improvement of the common preferred of residing of the sector populace. In providing these statistics, the IMF highlights two vital factors: first, projections expect that containment measures because of the pandemic will maintain in 2021 and that transmission of the virus will cease anywhere by means of the give up of 2022; the second, but, that the economic system stays concern to the hazard of “setbacks”.

With regard to the state of affairs of person states, the IMF emphasises (2020) that every united states of america faces extraordinary financial reactions which have plenty to do with the stories made in preCOVID situations. Hence the evaluation that Europe, and in particular the Eurozone, as passed off inside the preceding financial disaster, this time too appears to be dropping ground in the recuperation segment with admire to america and China. In fact, in line with the IMF, the gross domestic product of the euro place this 12 months will fall via -8.3%, while inside the United States the loss will forestall at four.Three%, nearly half. Among the superior global economies, the most effective exception with the plus sign is China, that allows you to even check in + 1.9% at the stop of the yr. By the quit of 2021, america could have misplaced one point of GDP, the Eurozone almost 3, at the same time as Beijing will have a rebound identical to +eight.2 percentage. According to IMF chief economist, Gita Gopinath, “This disaster is but far from over…The ascent out of this calamity is possibly to be lengthy, choppy, and rather uncertain” (2020).

EU Commission
The Annual Strategy for Sustainable Growth 2021, provided through the European Commission on 17 September 2020, opens the document with those forecasts: “Despite the robust, coordinated and progressive response, both at national and at EU level, there are numerous uncertainties that still remain, specially, on the duration of the crisis and how precisely it’ll have an effect on our lives and our economies” (European Commission, 2020b). According to the European Economic Forecasts of summer 2020, the economy of the euro location will settlement by way of -eight.7% in 2020 to then record a recuperation of +6.1% in 2021, while the EU economic system will settlement with the aid of -8.Three% in 2020 after which grow by way of +5.Eight% in 2021” (European Commission, 2020a).

Srm-Intesa Sanpaolo
Regarding the maritime shipping zone, the estimates supplied inside the seventh Annual Report “Italian Maritime Economy 2020” by using an authoritative Italian specialised look at center “Srm-Intesa Sanpaolo”, show an universal decline of four.Four% for 2020, accompanied through an increase of +five% for 2021 (SrmIntesa Sanpaolo, 2020). The Report analysed the impacts of COVID-19 at the logistical-maritime system and the numerous elements with which the phenomenon is manifesting itself: from the discount of the passages inside the Suez Canal to the brand new configuration of worldwide traffic, as much as the most current trends in maritime flows of the global trading.

In detail of the container section ”the nearest proxy to international alternate as it normally expresses manufacturing traffic”(Srm-Intesa Sanpaolo, 2020), the expected discount in 2020 is same to -7.Three%, with a total of 742 million twenty-foot equal unit (TEU) handled in international ports, a discern that brings returned the volumes of 2017.

In different words, the virus has taken away the sector’s last four years of growth, despite the fact that a rebound of +10% in 2021 and +6.6% in the 2022 is forseen. Then extending the forecasts to 2024, field dealing with in ports need to grow at a mean annual charge of +3.5% to attain 951 million TEU at the quit of the 4-12 months duration. At the worldwide area level, the recovery is evaluated inside the following terms: Europe at + 2.3%, Africa at + three.3%, Far East at + three.9%, Middle East at + four.Five% and North America at + 2.3%.

The Italian Maritime Economy Report (2020) highlights, especially, that the Mediterranean nevertheless represents a privileged transit direction for field site visitors, concentrating 27% of the about 500 international scheduled services by using deliver. Specifically, the Suez Canal inside the first five months of 2020 now not recorded the sustained (double-digit) boom of 2019: towards a +7% boom in ships transit (oil region ships + 11%, dry area + forty two%), containerships recorded a decrease amounting to -15%. The causes of this decline are specifically two, both as a result of the pandemic crisis: the decrease inside the loads dealt with by way of ships and the discount within the oil fee which has led many box ships to bypass via the African Cape of Good Hope to save toll charges: 52 megaships, same to 5.1% of the overall, favored this remaining path inside the period March-June 2020. This preference led the Suez Canal Authority to introduce a toll bargain of 17% for the containerships heading south, and of fifty to 70% for the US East Cost-South Asia and South East Asia direction. Other large phenomena have emerged with regards to an increasing use of the Arctic path (Northern Sea Route NSR) which within the period among JanuaryApril 2020 recorded an boom in passages identical to + 15% in comparison to 2019 (the most lively carrier is the Chinese agency COSCO) in addition to the exercise of “gradual steaming”: once more which will saving expenses, the ships traveled the routes at a slower pace.

Also considerable is the excessive number of “clean crusing” routes canceled due to loss of cargo which worried all the primary routes (Srm-Intesa Sanpaolo, 2020). The phenomenon reached a cost of 2.7 million TEU on the cease of May 2020, same to eleven.6% of the overall preserve potential. Srm-Intensa Sanpaolo (2020) estimates 7 million TEUs lost globally by way of 2020. The COVID-19 had a tremendous impact additionally on the tremendous Chinese “Belt and Road Initiative” project: out of 2,951 tasks well worth three.87 trillion bucks, 20 % is “critically affected” (to consider that the importexport between the nations touched by way of the BRI represents sixty five% of the trade volume with the European Union). At the same time, there has been a enormous increase in rail transport on the ChinaEurope course and vice versa. In July, the variety of freight trains reached a record of one,232 trains, with a + sixty eight% on July 2019. The Srm-Intensa Sanpaolo record (2020) reviews that consistent with the Chinese railway government, “shipping by means of teach has had a decisive function in stabilizing the chain of worldwide logistics interrupted by way of the pandemic”.

Globalisation Regionalisation: Profound Changes in Supply Chains
On the occasion of the reliable presentation of the Report on Italian Maritime Economy 2020, the director general of the Italian middle Srm, Massimo de Andreis, highlighted an element that is of precise significance for the Mediterranean location, particularly the regionalization of globalization. In the report (2020), De Andreis states:

We highlight how the pandemic is converting the geography of worldwide financial relations visible thru the lens of maritime site visitors. The China-US alternate clash seen from the Pacific path, the slowdown of the Belt and Road Initiative and Chinese exports, the impact at the Suez Canal and the emergence of opportunity routes are elements that still immediately affect the Mediterranean situations… We are in a phase of regionalization of globalization and the strategic significance of investing in ports and logistics which can be efficient and incorporated with European networks genuinely emerges.

The regionalisation of globalisation is a process that has now grow to be the problem of cautious and sizeable assessment at worldwide stage for its complicated geopolitical and geo-economic implications, inside the latter case additionally close to a one-of-a-kind employer of the worldwide cost chains presently underway.

On a preferred theoretical degree, pupils ask, as an example, what relationship exists between the two approaches: that of monetary globalisation and the creation of nearby economic areas. And the maximum shared end is that the two procedures are strongly blended with every different. In truth, it is the globalisation process with its pushes to open and interchange, with the reduction of fees and tariffs, the organisation of supply chains beyond the borders and the mixing of markets (in step with the Bretton Woods standards) which has unfold improvement within the maximum numerous regions of the arena, fostering cognizance of the values and possibilities present and to be seized in the numerous local structures, therefore prompted to sell their independent methods of economic improvement.

On the opposite hand, this is the factor that emerges surely, because the man or woman states have for a while now mentioned worldwide procedures in their improvement guidelines, inside the identical manner the new regional realities additionally seek advice from these approaches inside which they are attempting to excellent represent their wishes, discover their very own conveniences, in shape in. In different phrases, as globalisation produces regionalisation, so, vice versa, regionalisation further strengthens and qualifies the approaches of worldwide integration. The so-called “regional international”, or, with a good extra particular expression, the “new order of nearby worlds” (Barbieri, 2019), is not, in essence, a much less globalised international; it is, rather, a world wherein globalisation is in addition consolidated and it’s miles as if pressured to count on new principles, values, guiding factors, to understand the position of latest protagonists. It is on this new framework that each one actors, public and private, are required that allows you to construct new ways of interacting with every other, and to become aware of and pursue new strategies to man or woman and collective boom.

This method of geopolitical and geoeconomic regionalisation emerged for a while, well earlier than the pandemic disaster; however in reality the COVID-19 disaster is destined to intensify it even more. In evaluating the feasible responses of establishment companies to the shock and risks of the pandemic crisis, a current Report by means of the Economist Intelligence Unit EIU (2020) highlights that one of the foremost outcomes will be the regionalisation of world supply chains. “COVID-19 will fundamentally reshape change, accelerating the fashion closer to shortening supply chains. Justin-time production the usage of international providers will provide way to a greater awareness on use of local deliver chains, strategic use of inventories and a new approach to viewing risk in the Csuite” (EIU, 2020).

The productive and industrial advantages that multinational organizations were able to enjoy in recent years, in particular in members of the family with China, after this country joined the WTO in 2001, are destined to decrease considerably due to alternate wars, for example among the USA and China, and the upward push in salary ranges in the Chinese device; a situation that has already led numerous multinationals to relocate their deliver chains to other parts of Asia. But these selections are best a first signal of the effects that COVID-19 will produce.

This is a prelude to what is going to occur in different areas as global groups appearance to build resilience into their deliver chains. By building quasi-independent nearby deliver chains within the Americas and Europe, a international agency will provide a hedge against future shocks to their community. For those groups that have this luxury already, they had been capable of shift production of key additives from one place to some other as lockdowns and manufacturing facility closures due to coronavirus have spread out. Supply chains are difficult to installation or even extra tough to transport. As greater corporations make this selection, therefore, the shift to regionalised deliver chains might be a long-lasting final results of this crisis. (EIU, 2020).

Added to this, there may be the want of optimising transportation and garage for danger mitigation.

The issue of a globalised or nearby supply chain isn’t always the most effective tension that COVID-19 will divulge. Another core decision for multinationals is the timing of manufacturing and meeting of products along the deliver chain and, relatedly, the storage of both intermediate or final items for the duration of this system. For the sake of performance, multinationals generally tend to optimise the logistics procedure of their deliver chains to minimise storage costs. However, in a world of increasing uncertainty and ongoing hazard, a sole recognition on the performance of transportation and manufacturing will leave companies liable to shocks. In the cutting-edge crisis, organizations are seeing more fee in storing stock in strategic places from in which it could be without problems accessed and added to customers. This approach applies to final items however additionally to strategically important additives, consisting of people who may be best sourced from one marketplace (EIU,2020).

The EU MFF Budget 2021-2027: A Possible Response from the Mediterranean Area
Faced with those possibilities, which can be in element the testimony of first-rate moves already underway, what reaction can come from the Mediterranean region and, specifically, from its transport and logistics device? It is apparent that a valid solution can most effective come if the states of the place and their worldwide reference establishments are able to offer international gamers a legitimate, concrete, well-verifiable platform of opportunities and blessings in its contents, able to demonstrate to the arena the will to triumph over the critical fragmentation took place in recent times and to resume the manner of network integration of the Mediterranean region.

A remarkable opportunity on this sense is offered, as an instance, with the aid of the commitments that each one the states of the Mediterranean place, and not only of this place, have assumed and showed numerous times with the approval of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. As it’s miles well known, the platform presents precise dreams and duties to be performed within the economic, social and environmental dimensions and is currently in a section of complete implementation; therefore it can come to be an opportunity for the business enterprise of a commonplace running desk between all of the states of the Mediterranean place aimed toward identifying and defining interventions of a general and particular nature, systemic and now not fragmented, with strategies and plans agreed within the essential regions of promotion of sustainable common increase, among which the plans for the maritime economy, transport and logistics are fundamental.

Another tremendous opportunity is obtainable by way of the choices, being described inside the closing months of 2020, that the European Union might be able to take with the approval of the Multiannual Financial Framework Budget 2021-2027 (MFFBudget) and the updating of the relative policies, to construct favorable situations for the promotion of a actual organic cooperation in the Med place. In the file, beneath dialogue, the attention of the want to behave in this route is obvious:

The EU finances for outside action to expand cooperation with Neighbourhood international locations is not sufficient in evaluation with the dimensions of the needs in infrastructures and technology to connect those areas with European community. This make it vital that it invests in areas in which the Union can provide real European added price to public spending at country wide stage. Pooling and blending resources can obtain consequences that EU – Neighbourhood countries cooperation need to take full gain of the possibilities the Single Market offer. Other instances while pooling sources facilitates us do greater consist of catalysing key strategic investments (European Commission, 2018).

This reference to the need for connection infrastructures with neighbouring nations indicates the brilliant relevance nonetheless nowadays of the statements that Layola De Palacio, EU Commissioner for Transport, made in 2005 on the event of the presentation of the Wider Europe Report:

A properly functioning delivery system connecting the Europea Union (EU) and the neighbouring nations is essential for sustainable financial increase and the health of alla residents on this a part of the sector. Better integration of National networks will foster local cooperation and integration now not only between the EU and its neighbours however additionally among the neighbouring nations themselves. Also, top shipping connections in the EU in addition to inside the neighbouring international locations are crucial for exchange with Asia, sub-Saharan Africa or America. In quick improving delivery connection could be for the mutual gain of both the European Union and its neighbouring companion international locations.

The recommendations laid out in these two files verify that the European Union, with the approval of the new multiannual financial framework 20212027 and the updating of the associated plans and guidelines, offers the concrete opportunity to offer a brand new direction and a unique boost to Euro-Mediterranean cooperation, each to be primarily based on practices of real sharing of the strategic goals to be pursued, on powerful coordination among European policies and plans inside the transport and logistics region, country wide plans, the Regional Transport Action Plan (RTAP) and the related sectoral tasks, the plans drawn up by means of the Euro-Mediterranean partnership.

In this context, it might be proper and appropriate to launch a profound evaluation of the approach observed to date by the programmes relating to the networks of the essential Trans-European Transport Networks (TEN-T) corridors, specially oriented to the desires of the European internal marketplace, to undertaking and integrate them with the related programmes of the Trans Mediterranean Network-Transport (TMN-T), already mentioned for some time by the Euro-Mediterranean Forum on shipping, each for the western and the japanese Mediterranean side.

To this cease, the subsequent could be beneficial: a) the corporation of a permanent secretariat on delivery inside the Mediterranean as an instrument to assist the operation of the EuroMediterranean Forum, additionally on the basis of the experiences made by the The Centre for Transportation Studies for the Western Mediterranean (CETMO) structure which has been running for some time on the carrier of the Group of Transport Ministers of the Western Mediterranean (GTMO five+), b) similarly, a link between the various European finances running in cooperation and community regulations inclusive of: the Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) TEN-T fund for intermodality and logistic systems to be extended to all Mediterranean nations, the finances for Motorways of the Motorways of the Sea (MoS) initiatives, the price range already operational at the disposal of the European Investment Bank (EIB).

A feasible strategic preference of the European Union for the interoperability among the two incredible community structures, European and Mediterranean, supported by way of the consensus of all the fascinated states, would provide a completely essential signal of the will to promote a not unusual attempt all through the Mediterranean place to counter the effects of the pandemic crisis, release effective, significant and shared tasks on the matter of sustainable development, offer new opportunities to most important global players. There is no doubt that any such turnaround could substantially help the network of states inside the Mediterranean place to react positively and efficiently to the demanding situations of the brand new regionalisation tactics of the worldwide machine.

References

Mediterranean Sea and the COVID Pandemic: A Turning Point for Globalisation? Logistics and Global Value Chains
Giorgia Giovannetti, Vice President for International Relations and Full Professor of Economics, University of Florence; Team Leader and Part-Time Professor, European University Institute

Arianna Vivoli, PhD Student, University of Florence

In this quick note, we investigate the position of international manufacturing networks throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. A debate has lately emerged with recognize to the future of world cost chains (GVCs), discussing whether or not immoderate globalisation of manufacturing has worked as a channel transmitting the shock or as a protection net, and whether this disaster would result in a method of de-globalization or of sluggish-balization (Antras, 2020), with companies reshoring manufacturing or at the least nearshoring. We maintain that reshoring is not the proper solution, at the same time as nearshoring may be an possibility for the Mediterranean location.

What will show up is tough to are expecting, as we aren’t over the disaster and certainly we’re in the middle of a 2d wave (in the interim much less dramatic for nations in the southern shore of the Mediterranean), however what’s positive is that the pandemic outbreak, which led the IMF (April 2020) to forecast an unprecedent -three.0% global increase and then to worsen its predictions to -four.Nine% in 2020 inside the World Economic Outlook Update (October 2020), is likely to deliver changes to the global manufacturing process.

The UNCTAD file (2020) highlights 4 feasible (no longer mutually distinctive) trajectories that the international manufacturing technique might go through inside the next years: reshoring, diversification, replication and regionalisation. The last of those possibilities, regionalisation, implies the re-structuring of production operations by multinational organizations (MNEs) near-shore. This procedure may open up key possibilities and partnerships a number of the Mediterranean nations, as there is probably advantages for all in growing the hyperlinks among countries at the southern and northerly shorelines of the Mediterranean Sea. It is therefore vital to pick out the comparative benefits of the international locations in the southern shore, compare them with the ones of other developing and emerging countries, take a look at the complementarities with the specialisation of the northern shore and compare, for companies in one of a kind nations, the pros and cons of in all likelihood switching suppliers or buyers. These pros and cons can be very heterogeneous for specific sectors, relying on the complexity and specificity of the intermediate inputs sold or offered (a factor of an aircraft is likely more tough to replacement than a aspect of a shirt).

Surely the “shortening” of GVCs which is widely mentioned inside the recent literature can convey numerous benefits, because the lowering of operational costs, the improving of connectivity and the resilience of the vicinity in face of shocks and crises. It can also assist to lessen emissions and therefore solution one of the criticisms raised to GVCs of being environmental unfriendly. On the alternative hand, however, nearshoring might also boom publicity to neighborhood and idiosyncratic dangers and reduce the advantages coming from providers’ and buyers’ diversification of GVCs. The difficulty absolutely does not have a completely unique solution.

The Mediterranean Context
In 2020, nations in the southern shore of the Mediterranean were hit tough by a twin shock, the COVID-19 and the concomitant collapse in oil prices, that shaped the place’s output forecast to agreement to 5.2 in 2020 (Arezki et al., 2020). On the exchange facet, UNCTAD expected that simplest in April there was a forty % reduction in exchange for the location; furthermore, mobility and delivery restrictions closely affected logistics, transports and services alternate, particularly tourism, that’s especially vital for several nations of the Area. UNWTO (2020 b) indicates that worldwide tourists arrivals plummeted by way of fifty seven percent within the first months of 2020, with peaks of over 90 percentage among April and July and a dramatic fall in motel occupancy. Air traffic shrank by way of nearly a hundred percent in June and July (see also UNWTO, 2020a). Moreover, the pandemic is having a disproportionate effect on the more vulnerable sectors of populace, specifically casual workers and unemployed, with the range of poor anticipated to growth from 178 million to almost 200 million (Arezki, 2020), also due to the fact a massive proportion of informal people is by hook or by crook associated with offerings and specifically tourism (restaurants, avenue vendors, retail stores etc.).

Let us assess the region integration in manufacturing networks before the COVID19 outbreak. Despite the present trade agreements, particularly with the EU, the level of integration into GVCs of the southern Mediterranean international locations became modest, extensively underneath the mixing in the EU countries (Riera and Paetzold, 2020) and, except few cases, focused upstream (Ayadi et al., approaching; Del Prete et al, 2017). Also, the sectors concerned have been confined (aeronautic, automobile, textile, citrus being the main). The apparel and automotive sectors GVCs are discussed in a current paper by means of Bernhardt (2020), which evaluates, twenty years after, the consequences for Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia of getting into the trade-liberalising Association Agreements (AAs) with the EU. While all of the three nations appear to have upgraded their production inside the automobile GVC, within the apparel GVC, Egypt and Morocco skilled an economic downgrading, whilst Tunisia stands inside the middle, with elevated export unit values however with a decreased marketplace percentage (in particular after the finishing of the multi-fibre agreement) [1]. Moving out from low-professional textile and apparel GVCs might not be necessarily bad, mainly considering this region’s call for is declining global and if international locations have exploitable comparative blessings in higher-generation GVCs.

Using the BACI-CEPII Dataset, we compute the Revealed Comparative Advantages (RCA) in products at 2digit (following the Harmonized System ninety two worldwide nomenclature) throughout (selected) international locations at the northern and southern seashores of the Mediterranean Sea [2].

As we will see from the graphs in Figure 1, a few countries at the southern shore show a comparative benefit in a few merchandise with a high technological content material; as an instance, Jordan has a comparative advantage in the pharmaceutical quarter, Jordan and Morocco in fertilizers, Tunisia and Morocco in electric equipment and device, and Morocco and Tunisia within the manufacturing of aircrafts and their additives. This last region is mainly crucial since, within the northern shore, France has a strong comparative benefit and numerous multinationals have moved their production to Morocco and Tunisia. These descriptive facts seem to signify that there are sectors that might end up attractive for feasible relocations, with a ability to further integrate international locations of the southern Mediterranean shore into nearby or worldwide fee chains with European nations, an argument also recommend through Javorcik, (2020) and Ayadi et al, (2020). More importantly, these are sectors that could free up and push out Arab countries from low-fee segments of the GVCs, thereby attaining broader social outcomes, along with poverty reduction or social inclusion [3].

Figure 1. Revealed Comparative Advantages in selected international locations in the two shorelines of the Mediterranean

An interesting instance is the aerospace industry in Tunisia and Morocco. According to Zaki (2019), in Tunisia there are eighty one multinationals (e.G. Latécoère Group, Sabena Technics, Zodiac Aerospace) using more than 17.000 humans and specialising in sports with excessive cost added, ranging from software/hardware engineering to the production of plane systems. Nearly 70% of total manufacturing is exported to the EU. To take advantage of the blessings of the Tangier freezone, many aeronautic and aerospace multinationals have additionally shifted their production to Morocco (e.G. Safran, Airbus/ Stelia, Boeing, Bombardier Aerospace, Eaton, UTC and Thales, see Del Prete et al, 2017). As of 2019, Morocco counted over 140 companies operating in aeronautics and aerospace, maintaining almost 20.000 jobs with a 38% neighborhood integration fee [4]. Morocco exports aeronautic components to Europe, specifically to France and a popular say keeps that there is no single plane inside the international that flies with out as a minimum a aspect made in Morocco.

To compare the effects of the pandemic and the probability of improving regional cost chains, it’s also crucial to look at the actual change companions. Some nations in the South shore already change extra, especially intermediates, with EU countries more than with different international locations within the place, even as others appear to be extra integrated amongst themselves than with Europe. The distinct mix impacts at the call for for specific items and at the transmission of the shocks. For instance, from the World Integrated Trade Solution (WITS) of the World Bank, we see that Algeria’s pinnacle exporting companions in 2017 had been Italy (16,3% of overall usa’s export), France (12,59%) and Spain (11,66%); for Morocco (2018) the companions have been Spain (23,68%) and France (22,ninety) and for Tunisia (2017), France (30,58%), Italy (16,forty seven%) and Germany (eleven, 59%).

Let us now take into account the ten foremost buying and selling partners for each usa and compute their GDP contraction in 2020 (due to the COVID-19 pandemic) to assess if having special trade partners can penalize the exchange overall performance of a few international locations with recognize to others. We additionally do not forget the overall cost-delivered absorption (each the domestic and foreign) as a measure of the way countries are exposed to risks. We file our calculations in Figure 2. On the only hand, better stocks of price introduced originated and/or absorbed abroad (on the vertical axes), suggest higher exposure to foreign shocks, given the dimensions of the companions’ shocks. On the other hand, large shocks to the exchange partners (on the x axes) may also affect the usa greater seriously, given the significance of the value-introduced linkages.

We can without difficulty hit upon two unique organizations of nations. The maximum exposed countries out of the ones we analysed are positioned on the pinnacle right of the chart: Italy, Morocco, and Tunisia. Tunisia is the most exposed, both as a long way as the GDP contraction of trading partners is concerned in addition to the entire Value Added used and produced overseas. The less uncovered countries are placed at the lowest left. Egypt for example, is anticipated to go through particularly from partners’ GDP contraction, but has a totally low share of overseas VA absorption and a effective GDP increase as properly. On the opposite, the main chance for Jordan comes from a huge stake of global VA absorption.

Figure 2. The economic shocks from partners’ GDP contraction, decided on nations

Beside comparative benefits and exchange partners, any other critical problem within the discussion approximately the likelihood of enhancing regional cost chains worries the enterprise surroundings that every usa can offer to capability foreign buyers and alternate partners. This means that it is crucial for international locations of the southern shore of the Mediterranean, that nowadays rank low inside the Doing Business indicator (especially if as compared to their Asian competitors), to put into effect policies to draw overseas capital, ameliorating statistics transparency, increasing nation credibility, granting a valid political surroundings and a conducive surroundings for brand spanking new firms to start generating. Against this heritage, a specially crucial function is the question of logistics, which includes transport time, expenses, quality (of avenue, rail, maritime or air infrastructure) and issues each home and pass-border exchange logistics.

Prospects for the Logistics and Transportation Sectors
Complex systems as GVCs and production networks are heavily depending on efficient logistics and transportation, since the coordination of sports alongside the GVC as well as the exchanges of products depend so much on transports and logistics, so that in line with a few studies (e.G. Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia, 2017) enhancing logistics performance would on common lessen exchange fees 10 times extra than an equal reduction in price lists. The definition of GVC itself implies that intermediate products cross the borders at least two times. Hence, international locations trying to gain from GVCs participation need to address fragilities and key underlying elements of their logistics sectors. Countries of the southern shore of the Mediterranean vary appreciably in phrases of logistic overall performance; certainly, the World Bank’s Logistic Performance Index (LPI) for 2018 ranks Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria respectively 60th, 76th, 87th,104th and 107th out of 167 international locations.

Some international locations made large improvements inside the current past, such as Egypt, that well-knownshows excessive delivery connectivity, also because of the development of the second one Suez Canal line, and Morocco, with the creation of the AMDL (Moroccan Logistics Development Agency) and with the increase within the logistics education offer (from 2.500 locations in 2010 to more than 7.Two hundred in 2014-15 (Augier et al., 2019)). Morocco additionally improved notably its port infrastructure capacities: the Tangier Free Zone, connected to the Tangier Med port, has grown appreciably, now masking four hundred hectares. The commercial accelerating quarter of aeronautic, located within the Greater Casablanca location, is, however, near Mohammed V International Airport, Morocco’s main airport, which has additionally developed and is now serving over 70 locations international. Other international locations are going through more challenges, for example Tunisia, wherein port traffic has not multiplied considering that 2008 (Riera and Paetzold, 2020). When the pandemic commenced, it no longer simplest hit hard nearly each united states within the global, with lockdowns and border closures that closely restrained the movement of right and those, but given the abovementioned endemic fragilities, it affected the southern shore of the Mediterranean even more. Ameliorating the logistics quarter, with a view to grow to be greater included in area cost chains, could be important for the place to fully make the most its position as crossroads for all European, Asian, and African alternate routes.

Conclusions
The COVID-19 disaster is remarkable. The interconnected nature of global alternate implies a high level of publicity to foreign shocks that is likely to have contributed to the short propagation of the monetary downturn. Labour in depth sectors, in which employees mobility is crucial, have suffered more than others (Smith et al., 2020), each in production and offerings. Services, which had been partially sheltered in previous monetary crises, had been badly hit, specially tourism and transport, extra exposed to health dangers and lockdown measures. Services, however, are much less worried in GVCs and to a certain extent, this could provide an explanation for why, in a few cases, GVCs might also have helped mitigate the negative consequences on countrywide economies while for manufacturing, the main mitigation channel may be the possibility of counting on foreign demand or foreign suppliers (Antras, 2020).

We highlighted that GVCs suggest complicated members of the family between firms running in exclusive nations. The associated international sports, especially offshoring and change in intermediate items, result in efficiency profits through department of labour and extended specialisation, but in addition they imply higher interconnectedness and likely higher publicity to dangers. This is why many coverage makers have started out talking about reshoring offshore centers. Regional cost chains are “geographically nearer” than Global Value Chains. This could mean that the dangers are decreased, as is the pollutants related to the fragmentation of production. We trust that regionalisation of deliver chains, where by local we suggest the Mediterranean area, may be an green solution for both the southern and the northern seashores of the Mediterranean. The economic cycles of nations within the beaches are not very correlated (given exclusive endowments and specialisation), labour fees are still lower within the southern shore, despite the fact that there will be a need for skill upgrading of employees within the South to fully make the most the opportunities. A careful analysis of found out comparative advantages may want to highlight which sectors may be the premise to beautify the regional links with mutual benefits for the two shorelines. Regional GVCs are closer to consumer markets and extra consolidated in phrases of activities. They might be a option to surf the COVID-19 crisis, without destroying the worldwide production network, that’s a essential force for the arena economic system.

Notes

References

The COVID-19 Pandemic: What Impacts at the World Economy and the International Supply Chains? Focus on the Western Mediterranean Region
Jérôme Verny, Professor of Supply Chain Management – NEOMA Business School, Paris; Founder and Director, Master of Science DISC (Digital & Innovative Supply Chain); Founder and Director of the Institute of Transport and Innovative Supply Chain.

In March 2020 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 a virus. Since then, its unfold worldwide has entailed extraordinary health, monetary and social consequences for these days’s economies. People communicate of monetary surprise, hence implying a prime financial crisis within the mid and lengthy-time period.

According to a current survey by using the McKinsey consulting firm, three main eventualities could emerge: a rapid recovery, a world slowdown, and a recession caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Indeed, the scope of the economic harm resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic will rely on the following conditions: how speedy the spread of this virus is averted, in other phrases, the effectiveness of vaccine deployment; the performance of governments’ financial recovery measures however also the capability to broaden joint actions at a European level, as an example; and the diploma of monetary and social assist of governments for the most affected sectors and the most vulnerable human beings.

At a international scale, the COVID-19 pandemic has created disruptions both to the deliver and demand that are pondered in all logistical chains. Following the closure of factories in China inside the different business sectors (vehicle, aeronautical, textile…) in the course of the primary zone of 2020, a disruption has been visible in the course of the supply chain all around the world. The bullwhip effect [1] has been mentioned in the supply chain, particularly within the meals and drug sectors.

This article seeks to shed light at the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global supply chains. It focuses specially on the Mediterranean location as a major maritime path connecting Asia to Europe and consequently as one of the primary trade channels within the world economy. The paper is split into two components. The first provides a popular perception into the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the world deliver chains and the second one appears on the Western Mediterranean area and the position of ports inside the international supply chains following the changes delivered about by way of the COVID-19. We introduce the concept of digital competition and therefore put forward a few guidelines to the Western Mediterranean ports with a view to improve their strategic role within the global deliver chains inside the postCOVID-19 technology.

The COVID-19 Pandemic Revealing the Weakness of the Globalised Supply Chains
Understanding the Global Supply Chains
The COVID-19 has revealed the weak point of the world logistics gadget. Indeed, the elevated globalisation of the financial system inside the final 20 a long time and the growing internationalisation of exchanges have contributed to the established order of enormous and complex supply chains. These rely upon distant supply assets which might be frequently hard to control in contexts of health crises such as the COVID-19. Let’s take for example the pharmaceutical industry: according to the Académie nationale de pharmacie in France, eighty% of the lively principles used in the international would be presently synthetic in China, India and some Southeast Asian nations (Académie nationale de pharmacie, 2020). The geographical dispersion of those supply assets is certain to disrupt the activities of the actors at the bottom of the pharmaceutical enterprise, closest to the client markets.

In the previous couple of decades, the facilitation of exchanges and the scale economies furnished through containerisation (over 20,000 twenty-foot equal gadgets [TEU] on a unmarried container ship in 2020 compared to 8,500 TEU in the early 2000s) assist fortify the bottom of the internationalisation of alternate. In addition, there’s an ongoing studies on optimisation of shares from the dealer to the final consumer as well as an emphasis on the comparative blessings of each territory within the world (accessibility to uncooked substances, fee of low-skilled labour, industrial cluster including Shenzhen, which debts for 1/2 of the arena production of mobile telephones, and so on). As top notch as it could appear, the most effective objective of those strategic picks for the big supply chains which can be continually greater internationalised is to provide the very last patron merchandise at more and more competitive fees.

The publish-COVID-19 disaster generation is possibly to question the dependence of contemporary economies on remote overseas suppliers, giving the impact of a loss of economic and industrial autonomy. Companies along with Intel, Proctor & Gamble, General Motors and Walmart are nicely prepared for the capability disruptions of their global deliver chain. They all have a protocol concerning the selections to make whilst an surprising crisis takes place.

Introducing Supply Chain Risk Management
The belief of hazard control is described as the probability of an occasion/incident going on. In a deliver chain, this might problem various dangers (ruptures in suppliers, height call for, loss of transport capacities, and so on). These repercussions, recognized by means of the literature, are often formalised by means of the bullwhip effect idea. The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed the vulnerability of the supply chains confronted with the want to expect and model risks before they occur.

From this point of view, the new digital technologies, along with the Internet of things (IoT), cloud computing, synthetic intelligence, device getting to know, 5G, and so forth, can assist better integrate supply chain hazard management inside the supply chain layout. These technology could in the destiny notably improve the visibility of flows inside the deliver chain. The multiplied connectivity and visibility of the global supply chain could allow the supply chain actors to evaluate and anticipate the risks. Such proactivity is important to installation the suitable strategies to respond to a virus type crisis.

The figure below features a conceptual framework enabling the mixing of the chance management belief and a way to prepare thanks to the contribution of virtual technology:

Figure 1. The position of deliver chain hazard control and digitisation

Focus on the Western Mediterranean Region
Towards a Smart and Inclusive Regionalisation of the Mediterranean Economies
The Mediterranean is taken into consideration an monetary place marked by extraordinary disparities in phrases of economic improvement among the two beaches. With its 450 million inhabitants, it’s far considered one of the biggest intake basins. Its presence at the Asia-Europe sea course offers it a standing of a sea of transit and place of passage of flows aimed at the northern variety ports. The modern crisis places at the agenda of the economic policies of Mediterranean nations the issue of the financial regionalisation and spatial reorganisation of the price chain for sure strategic sectors with strong potential in terms of R&D however additionally of outlets inside the Mediterranean all through the post-COVID-19 era.

We have to be aware that, because the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, the actors of the pharmaceutical industry had been involved approximately the susceptible degree of manipulate of the logistical flows for the active ideas mainly. Although R&D and commercial manufacturing are nonetheless found in Europe, the manufacturing of the lively concepts has lengthy been relocated specifically in China and India. In this recognize, some international locations together with France have launched commercial projects aimed at relocating a few links within the price chain of the pharmaceutical industry. Greater coordination at the Euro-Mediterranean degree might be vital to entrench these regionalisation/commercial relocation strategies.

Towards Digital Cooperation among the Western Mediterranean Ports
Cooperation in phrases of research, improvement and innovation (R&D&I) focused on virtual technologies and their potential to impeach the prevailing ecosystems will be formalised below the concept of “digital cooperation”. The spearhead of this model of cooperation lies inside the capability of the actors to speak and proportion information and later carry together progressive projects with an ecosystemic approach permitting the emergence of smart ports.

Digital cooperation based totally on experimentation with technological answers will absolutely expand in no time inside the coming years. The COVID-19 disaster and its bullwhip results on the worldwide supply chains appear to strengthen the resilience of the ports and their ecosystems. This resilience should, with time, enhance the innovation approaches and the development at scale of recent technology (digitisation, automation, optimisation).

Recently, OneConnect Financial Technology Co., in partnership with China Merchants Group, has launched the platform task to enable exchanges and global logistics primarily based on the blockchain generation. In a pilot test, 200 TEU were exchanged with the companion Chinese ports. The technology linking the ports has reduced the logistical import and export processes from five to seven days to simplest days. The transport and tariff charges for the firms have additionally reduced via 30% (Port Technology, 2020). Another example is that of the American organization CUBEX GLOBAL, [2] which has evolved a market allowing it to recommend cargo capacities available inside the bins. An optimisation algorithm supplying a 3-d view and visible representation of most useful field internal loading.

Figure 2. Optimisation model advanced via CUBEX GLOBAL
This market has the advantage of optimisation of loading ratio of the bins and consequently of the ships for better productivity (financial system of scale) and better environmental performance (discount of externalities of maritime shipping). This solution should in the long time be extended to the case of empty containers by means of offering this visibility in real time thanks to the virtual dual of the container but additionally by extending its software to port terminals. In the Mediterranean, North-South alternate imbalances at the level of maritime transport may be seen inside the extent of empty bins moved that have an effect on the optimisation and profitability of port operations. Solutions like the aforementioned can offer performance and productiveness gains for the port terminals inside the Mediterranean.

Digital twins in the ports also offer a new field of deployment of superior virtual cooperation between the port groups. A digital twin is a duplicate of the port and its centers enabling optimisation of port operations, anticipation of the arrival of the ships and extra globally the discount via over 10% of the costs of port operations. Northern variety ports consisting of Rotterdam and Antwerp have already initiated pilot initiatives exploring the capacity of digital twins. Solution integrators, which includes the ones furnished with the aid of Bosch, permit the development of tailored answers for port groups. The ports of the Mediterranean must encourage the emergence of ecosystems committed to innovation to accelerate port operation digitisation projects. In this respect, the Med Ports Association is an initiative bringing together 23 ports of the Mediterranean at a local scale. Initiatives extra targeted on the technological and virtual sections must be advanced prioritising a bottom-up method; this is, primarily based at the wishes of customers, ship-proprietors and shippers.

Figure 3. The pillars of digital cooperation
Conclusions and Recommendations
In this article, we have added a few training drawn from the current COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on the worldwide deliver chains. Shaped to fulfill the challenges of optimisation and scale economies, the latter have thus far rarely protected threat control in the configuration of logistical networks. Since the advent of the pandemic in early 2020, logistics specialists and researchers agree that a transition toward extra resilient and increasingly more digitised supply chains could permit hazard control to be anticipated. This anticipation might enable prevention of disruptions along the supply chain inside the case of pandemic or crises of a one of a kind nature (geopolitical, financial, and so on).

In this new logic, huge sea ports and regional ports will should paintings collectively in an ecosystemic approach. A mid and lengthy-time period strategic making plans is vital between the ports of the Mediterranean. Innovation, R&D and medical cooperation need to be the pillars of this new port control version to be carried out, in which cooperation and competition ought to coexist with the intention to optimise the profits of every actor whilst in search of an most effective collective result at the extent of the Western Mediterranean region.

Finally, we are able to formulate the following hints for the ports of the Mediterranean:

• Encourage port tasks that prioritise a bottom-up method combining strategic voluntariness of the ports, smart cooperation and open innovation.

• Accelerate the digital transformation of the port ecosystems in the Mediterranean.

• Foster the development of short sea shipping corridors in the Western Mediterranean inclusive of the huge maritime ports and nearby ports from the 2 shorelines of the Mediterranean.

• Promote shared port services and a door-to-door logistics to attract shipowners.

• Strengthen the attraction/connectivity of the port hinterlands through offering progressive logistical offerings/ multimodal logistical poles/innovation clusters.

Notes

References

COVID-19 and the Scramble for Trans-Mediterranean Commercial Transportation Corridors: Challenges and Opportunities
Michaël Tanchum, Professor of International Relations, University of Navarra, Spain. Senior Fellow, Austrian Institute for European and Security Policy (AIES).

Introduction
The COVID-19 has reshuffled the deck in the strategic scramble to set up Europe-to-Africa business transportation corridors across the Mediterranean basin. Prior to the pandemic’s outbreak, the European Union (EU) machine already confronted a urgent strategic undertaking to form a coherent and powerful coverage in North Africa to respond to the an increasing number of enormous roles performed by using China, Russia, Turkey, and the Arab Gulf states inside the improvement of trans-Mediterranean connectivity. The severe economic effect of the COVID-19 pandemic ought to result in the ones actors exercise an oversized have an effect on in reshaping the simple economic structure and the geopolitics of trans-Mediterranean connectivity inside the absence of European action.

China’s obvious early economic healing may additionally offer Beijing a brand new firstmover advantage in every of the three emerging trans-Mediterranean business shipping corridors: Morocco’s West Africa-to-Western Europe hall, an Algeria-anchored critical Maghreb hall, and the Egypt-primarily based East Africa-to-Eastern and Central Europe corridor through the japanese Mediterranean. The existential competition among Turkey and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) will make certain that Turkey, along side its strategic accomplice Qatar, and the UAE will continue to be exceedingly engaged throughout North Africa. Egypt’s superb monetary boom outlook increases the possibility that progress in establishing the jap corridor ought to sufficiently surpass the opposite corridors to reorient business flows from those corridors. The manner and volume to which the EU exercises management in the development of trans-Mediterranean connectivity will decide the parameters of its future geopolitical impact in North Africa and the effectiveness of the EU’s efforts to develop a complete partnership with Africa as a whole.

Keys Factors for Trans-Mediterranean Connectivity within the Post-COVID-19 Period
Prior to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, Morocco’s West Africa-toWestern Europe corridor became the maximum advanced in its development while the Egypt-based totally East Africa-to-Eastern Mediterranean-to Eastern/Central Europe corridor became at a extra initial degree of development, albeit with extensive financial potential. The significant hall based totally in Algeria became still in a formative country, with its rudimentary circumstance characterized by way of a jockeying amongst global actors to set up a successful hall.

Morocco’s achievement has proven that industrial corridors only emerge in which the needful large investments in port and rail infrastructure are coupled with an commercial base anchored in a manufacturing price chain. These necessities mirror the 2 essential wishes in Africa’s present day growth segment greater commonly – elevated commercial connectivity to patron markets and a larger business production base.

The Moroccan instance (in addition to the Algerian instance) additionally suggests that if the European Union machine does not work effectively to associate with North African nations to satisfy these necessities, then EU member states gambling main roles in trans-Mediterranean connectivity will companion with actors outside the EU system. The Egyptian instance is a case wherein the already deeply entrenched positions of China, Russia, and numerous Arab Gulf states display the need of EU system involvement to make certain a European function in trans-Mediterranean connectivity.

China’s apparent economic recuperation from the COVID-19 pandemic would seem to region Beijing in pole function to deepen its impact over the improvement of trans-Mediterranean connectivity. According to Chinese records, China’s month-to-month exports in November 2020 rose 21.1% 12 months-on-12 months (Deccan Herald, 2020). Exceeding global analysts’ forecasts, China’s $268 billion of November 2020 exports represented the sixth consecutive month of export boom. In assessment, seasonally adjusted GDP decreased by means of 12.1% within the Eurozone at some stage in the second region of 2020, with the economies of the primary EU Mediterranean actors, France and Italy, having shriveled by 19.0% and Italy by means of 17.3% respectively in comparison to the identical quarter of the previous year (Eurostat, 2020).

Nonetheless, as this look at shows, the EU keeps a important window of possibility to effect the direction of trans-Mediterranean connectivity, because the destiny of Chinese investments remains far from certain in the post-COVID-19 length. China’s biggest coverage banks, the China Development Bank and the Export-Import Bank of China, slashed their mixed lending in 2019 to only $four billion, compared to $seventy five billion in the top 12 months of 2016 (Wheatly and Kynge, 2020). Ultimately, the configuration of Africato-Europe fee chains that result from investment relationships among the Maghreb nations and their foreign companions will establish the geopolitical framework of these emerging trans-nearby commercial architectures for the years yet to come.

Morocco’s West Africato-Western Europe Corridor within the PostCOVID-19 Era
Morocco’s success in advancing its West Africa-to-Western Europe business corridor stems from the sizable investments made by means of Rabat and its foreign partners inside the concurrent improvement of each Morocco’s transportation infrastructure and its business base, anchoring Morocco’s emerging trans-Mediterranean commercial connectivity in production fee chains. Morocco’s production of its al-Boraq high-pace rail line – Africa’s first highspeed rail transportation – has installed Morocco’s unrivaled function as an Africa-to-Europe industrial corridor. The $2.Three billion, 362 km-long first phase of landmark high-velocity line became built as a Franco-Moroccan joint project. The Boraq line is related to Morocco’s new today’s Tanger Med Port at the u . S . A .’s Mediterranean coast, forty km east of Tangier. In overdue June 2019, Tanger Med have become the Mediterranean’s biggest port, surpassing Spain’s Algeciras and Valencia ports, with a total in container ability of 9 million twentyfoot equal units (TEU). The $1.Five billion potential expansion turned into supported with the aid of enormous Chinese investment (CMG, 2017), however China has thus far didn’t capitalize at the funding as Beijing has been unsuccessful in setting up an independent production chain in Morocco (Tanchum, 2020c).

The importance of integrating infrastructure investment with commercial manufacturing chains is illustrated by means of Morocco’s a success automotive industry, producing over seven hundred,000 cars consistent with 12 months and serving as the centerpiece of the u . S . A .’s West Africa-to-Western Europe Corridor. In 2012, Groupe Renault installed a second Moroccan manufacturing plant in Tangier to enjoy the multiplied Tanger Med Port and the rail hyperlink to it, producing its millionth car within five years. Europe’s third biggest automaker presently sends six trainloads of Renault automobiles every day from its Tangier factory to the Tanger Med port for shipment (Berrada, 2019). In June 2019, French vehicle manufacturer Groupe PSA, Europe’s second biggest automaker, opened a production plant in Kénitra, north of Rabat, because of the Boraq high-speed rail hyperlink to the Tanger Med port (Ennaji, 2019). In early 2019, automotive sectors income accounted for 27.6 percentage of Morocco’s exports (Groupe Société Générale, 2020).

Morocco’s present automobile manufacturing led via French producers Groupe Renault and Groupe PSA, is supported by way of about two hundred worldwide suppliers running their own production plants inside the united states of america, consisting of major companies founded in Germany, France, Italy, Spain, and Belgium. Some Chinese producers are using the possibility of Groupe PSA’s new vehicle manufacturing plant in Kénitra to integrate into the French-led European price chain, including CITIC Dicastal, that’s establishing $four hundred million plant in Kénitra, with a capability to provide 6 million pieces yearly to supply elements to PSA Groupe (Tanchum, 2020c).

Morocco maintains to increase the Boraq line as a part of its programme to create 1,500 km of additional high-speed rails links, that are already forming the overland transportation backbone of a France-led, Africa-to-Europe commercial chain. Rabat’s highest strategic precedence is to extend a excessive-velocity rail link to Lagouira (La Güera) within the southernmost point of the Western Sahara region, which Morocco considers its Southern Provinces. Running from Morocco’s Tanger Med Port across and down the length of the Atlantic coast to the Mauritanian border, the Tangier-Lagouira line will create a excessive-speed industrial transportation hall from the shores of the western Mediterranean to the border of West Africa.

The Boraq excessive-velocity rail line, as a French-Moroccan joint venture, is emblematic of France’s function as Morocco’s leading foreign investment companion as well as Paris’ new push to be visible as a high quality alternate-agent for African financial development. France provided fifty one% of the financing for the challenge with Morocco offering another 27%. The last 22% of the mission was financed through improvement budget from the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait (Moqana, 2018). Along with France, the GCC countries – particularly the UAE – had been mainstays of foreign investment in Morocco. The Boraq line displays the truth that France’s essential companions in facilitating Morocco’s transformative infrastructure development are the UAE, Saudi Arabia, and different GCC states. The EU27 collectively is Morocco’s biggest trade companion, accounting for fifty five% of Morocco’s 2019 total bilateral change quantity. Nonetheless, France’s principal companions for strategic monetary engagement with Morocco are Abu Dhabi and Riyadh, now not Madrid, Rome, or maybe Berlin.

Morocco’s economic system is projected to go through a 6.Three% contraction (World Bank, 2020), but the contraction could be worse depending on the intensity and duration of the contraction of the EU27 financial system. The EU27 incorporates fifty eight% of Morocco’s export market and 70% of its tourism enterprise, at the same time as additionally accounting for 59% of Morocco’s overseas direct funding (FDI) (Chtatou, 2020). China’s try to establish its personal industrial chain in Morocco via setting up an electric powered vehicle production plant has to this point remained stalled (Tanchum, 2020c). However, the a hit advent of an electric automobile production chain might drastically adjust China’s role in the West Africa-toWestern Europe corridor.

France remains bereft of European partners willing to play a strategic position in Morocco’s infrastructure improvement. Morocco is well-perfect for electric automobile production and hydrogen manufacturing, each of which might be EU priorities. In the absence of strategic coordination in Morocco between France and different EU individuals or with the EU gadget, Morocco’s Africa-to-Europe corridor will increasingly depend upon the strategic courting among France and its Arab Gulf companions. Instead of the EU’s “five partnerships” framework for African improvement, the confluence of strategic pastimes amongst Rabat, Paris, Abu Dhabi and Riyadh will set the terms for Morocco’s West Africa-to-Western Europe business corridor.

COVID-19 and the Competition for a Central Maghreb Corridor
The efforts to expand a Europe-toAfrica corridor through the Central Maghreb presently revolve around Algeria’s road connectivity within the Trans-African Highway device, starting inside the u . S .’s capital Algiers. The lately shaped Turkey-Italy-Tunisia transportation network that slices throughout the centre of the Mediterranean, growing an arc of industrial connectivity from the Maghreb to the broader Black Sea is presently the leading aspirant to form a Europe-to-Africa corridor through the central Maghreb that utilizes Algeria’s connectivity. However, the principle mission rising to Turkey-Italy-Tunisia community is being posed by China’s attempt to construct El Hamdania, a massive-scale transshipment port in Cherchell.

The Turkey-Italy-Tunisia community’s critical hub is Italy’s deep-sea port of Taranto located at the Italian peninsula’s southern tip inside the strategic coronary heart of the Mediterranean Sea. Managed via Turkish port operator Yilport, the Taranto port started out servicing the TurkeyItaly-Tunisia network in early July 2020. The Taranto-Tunisia phase of the network simultaneously forms the center hyperlink of a potential Europe-to-Africa industrial transportation corridor, by connecting North Africa’s coast to the principal markets and production centres of Italy, Germany, and northerly Europe thru Italy and Europe’s highspeed rail systems. From Tunisia’s Bizerte port, the corridor also can link by toll road to Algiers, the Mediterranean coastal terminal for the Trans-Saharan Highway (Route 2 within the Trans-African Highway (TAH) device), doubtlessly extending the Italy-to-Tunisia corridor southward into West Africa as far as Lagos, Nigeria.

The Turkey-Italy-Tunisia network is a multi-modal transportation direction whose Europe-to-Africa section extends from the community’s principal node at Taranto to Malta after which the port of Bizerte in Tunisia. The Taranto-Malta maritime link is likewise supported by way of the European Union because the southernmost hyperlink within the EU’s personal “Scandinavian-Mediterranean Corridor,” one of the 9 core community corridors of the European Commission’s Trans-European Transportation Network, or TEN-T, programme. TEN-T’s Scandinavian-Mediterranean Corridor is the EU’s crucial north-south transportation artery, a course spanning the Scandinavian peninsula, Denmark, Germany, Austria, Italy, and Malta. Because the TurkeyItaly-Tunisia community’s Taranto-Malta segment turned into previously unique as TEN-T’s Scandinavian-Mediterranean hall’s southern terminal link, Turkey should emerge as the operator of the hub of what might also become the maximum prized Europe-to Africa corridor. By interconnecting the EU’s Scandinavian-Mediterranean Corridor with Africa’s Algeria-to-Nigeria Trans-Saharan Highway, the Turkey-Italy-Tunisia community’s Italy-Tunisia segment probably forms the important link for the introduction of a megacorridor spanning Europe and Africa from 60o N. Range to 6o N. Range.

The Turkish port operator Yilport Holding has been assembling the transformative connectivity of the Turkey-Italy-Tunisia network (Tanchum, 2020b). On July 30, 2019, Yilport committed to an funding of a total of €four hundred million for Taranto’s preservation and enlargement to four million TEU by way of 2028 (Louppova, 2018). CMA CGM, the world’s fourth largest container transportation organization, wherein Yilport’s chairman is a 24% stakeholder, started out provider to the Taranto port on July 10, 2020. CMA CGM’s TURMED provider now links Taranto and Tunisia via Malta’s Freeport Terminal at the Marsaxlokk port operated with the aid of Yilport, that’s majority-owned and operated by using Yilport Holding. Roughly equidistant among Taranto and Tunis, Yilport’s Malta terminal forms an critical logistics centre for the Africa-to-Europe phase of the Turkey-Italy-Tunisia corridor.

With its fashionable cognizance on Italo-TunisianAlgerian electricity interconnectivity, Italy has actually laid the groundwork for the enlargement of the Turkey-Italy-Tunisia corridor’s extension to Algeria through the involvement of Italy’s main creation corporations, along with ITALCONSULT and Anas International, Algeria’s megaproject East-West toll road traversing the entire period of Algeria parallel to the u . S .’s coast. Without having coupled Algeria’s transportation infrastructure improvement with investments in neighborhood commercial manufacturing related to a production value chain, Italy’s role in Algeria’s commercial connectivity remains far from positive as Turkey’s army presence in Libya is growing Ankara’s political and financial clout in neighboring Tunis and Algiers.

Turkey has made a strong inroads in Algeria via $three.5 billion dollars of investments, ranking Turkey as one of the usa’s top overseas traders (Tanchum, 2020b). One month into Turkey’s game-converting Libya intervention, Turkey’s President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan visited Algeria on January 26, 2020, in which he announced the intention of raising Turkey-Algeria bilateral change to $5 billion. Declaring Algeria as “one in every of our strategic companions in North Africa,” during his January 2020 go to, Erdoğan explained, “Algeria is one in all Turkey’s most crucial gateways to the Maghreb and Africa” (Hürriyet Daily News, 2020). Italy’s role in Tunisia is being undermined via the vast investments of Turkey’s strategic associate, Qatar, whose approximately $3 billion of investments (Gulf Times, 2020) ranks it as Tunisia’s 2d largest investor, behind France but leapfrogging beforehand of each Italy and Germany (Tanchum, 2020b).

While the Turkey-Qatar partnership has gained monetary and political have an impact on within the significant Maghreb, it has no longer secured a dominant role inside the development of vital Africa-to Europe hall either. Bizerte and Tunisia’s 5 other medium-sized ports, do no longer provide an economy of scale to preserve an financial hall. With an predicted 20% contraction of the Tunisian financial system in 2020 (Asala, 2020), it remains uncertain while creation will begin on Tunisia’s proposed deep-sea port at Enfidha. In the absence of a cutting-edge deepsea port, the Turkey-Italy-Tunisia community could become a sub-gadget in China’s Belt and Road Inititiative (BRI) structure.

The incorporation of the Turkey-Italy-Tunisia community into a BRI-orientated valuable hall can be achieved with China’s creation of El Hamdania port within the Algerian municipality of Cherchell. Following China’s CITIC Construction’s achievement in building maximum of Algeria’s East-West toll road, Algiers inked a deal in 2016 with the China State Construction Engineering Corporation and the China Harbor Engineering Company to construct El Hamdania as a large transshipment port placed about 60 km west of Algiers (Bonface, 2016). With a container potential of 6.Five million TEU, El Hamdania could characteristic because the hub of an Africa-to-Europe corridor connected to the Taranto port.

In July 2019, the Algerian government ratified and showed by using presidential decree its September 2018 Memorandum of Understanding with China in which Algeria agreed to participate in Beijing’s BRI programme (Xinhua, 2019b). Slowed however not deterred by way of the COVID-19 pandemic, nor Algeria’s changing political environment, Beijing’s China International Development Cooperation Agency signed, on eleven October 2020, an financial and technical cooperation agreement with Algiers to deepen Algeria’s BRI participation (APS, 2020). Nonetheless, requiring seven years of production at a modern estimated cost of $6 billion (Agenzia Nova 2020), whether or not and while El Hamdania will definitely be completed stays unsure, as Algeria’s economic system has been forecasted to contract by five.Five% in 2020 (IMF, 2020) forcing a discount of the planned investments of its country-owned power corporation Sonatrach with the aid of 50% (Reuters, 2020b).

While a sufficiently strong recuperation in power costs should push Algeria’s effective economic increase in 2021, Algiers would require an oil fee of $157.2 to balance its finances. Despite depleting its foreign reserves, Algeria has so far been reluctant to are seeking assistance from the International Monetary Fund (M’vida, 2020), leaving it more at risk of growing its dependence on China, Russia, and Turkey.

Post-COVID-19 Advance of the Eastern Corridor: Egypt and the East Africa-to-Eastern Mediterranean Corridor-toEastern/Central Europe
With about 103 million inhabitants, Egypt has the largest populace of any Mediterranean nation and the 1/3 largest in Africa. Egypt is progressing closer to turning into a hub for an East Africa-to-Eastern Mediterranean business transportation hall that connects to the European mainland on the big Chinese-run transshipment port in Piraeus, Greece. Piraeus’ port operator China Ocean Shipping Company (COSCO) gives freight rail carrier thru the Balkans and Central Europe to reach Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, and Poland, extending the East Africa-to-Eastern Mediterranean corridor to the principal markets and manufacturing centres of Eastern and Central Europe.

Egypt has been engaged in a programme to increase its overall box ability of its Mediterranean ports to associate with Piraeus because the dominant transshipment hubs in the Mediterranean basin. China occupies a preeminent position in Egypt’s both the operation of Egypt’s Mediterranean ports and their ability growth. The majority of Egypt’s overseas trade is dealt with via the Alexandria port and its auxiliary El Dekheila port with a mixed box ability of one.5 TEU. The port is administered by using the Hong Kongbased Hutchison Port Holdings, as a joint venture between Hutchison, the Alexandria Port Authority, and Saudi Al Blagha Holdings (Mooney, 2016). Hutchison is likewise developing a 2 million TEU port on the nearby Abu Qir peninsula so as to begin operations in 2022 (Egypt Today, 2019). The five.4 million TEU Suez Canal Container Terminal (SCCT) at East Port Said is owned by way of APM (fifty five%) and COSCO (20%) with the last 25% stake split a number of the Suez Canal Authority, the National Bank of Egypt, and Egyptian private area contributors. The SCCT offerings the entire Suez Canal Economic Zone mega-task in which China is the largest investor (Xinhua, 2019b).

The emerging East Africa-to-Eastern Eastern Mediterranean industrial hall focused in Egypt is a multimodal hall whose African phase might be primarily based on rail connectivity as Cairo has prioritised moving its industrial transportation from avenue to rail (Dornier, 2019). Egypt is creating rail connectivity with Sudan that could forge a new north-south rail hall with the White Nile countries with whom Egypt is more closely aligned, extending southward to Egypt’s partner Tanzania and the alternative East African international locations of the broader Lake Victoria basin. This improvement has been facilitated via Egypt’s warming relation with the brand new Sudanese government after the April 2019 ouster of Sudan’s former strongman Omar al-Bashir and the multibillion-dollar assist provided to Sudan’s new authorities by means of Egypt’s close strategic partners the UAE and Saudi Arabia (Abdelaziz, 2019).

On 25 October 2020, Egypt and Sudan signed a brand new transportation connectivity agreement on the way to create present day rail connections among Egypt and Sudan (Egypt Today, 2020). The first rail link of the task will be built with investment from the Kuwait Fund for Economic Development and will run from Egypt’s southern city of Aswan to the Sudanese border town of Wadi Halfa, which presently is the northern terminus of Sudan’s rail line from the country’s capital Khartoum. Combined with the eventual upgrade and finishing touch of South Sudan’s rail hyperlinks among its borders with Sudan and Uganda, Egypt will preside over a rail hall that links the booming economies of East Africa to Eastern Mediterranean coast. With maritime connectivity from Egypt’s ports to Piraeus, Egypt will become the multimodal hub for a commercial corridor extending from East Africa to Eastern and Central Europe through the Eastern Mediterranean.

China’s construction of a high-pace rail line from Egypt’s Red Sea port of Sokhna to its Mediterranean port at Alexandria will boost up the improvement of rail transportation as the main land element of an East Africa-Eastern Mediterranean hall. The $9 billion soft turned into provided in September 2020 to a Sino-Egyptian consortium led by the China Civil Engineering Construction Corporation (Egypt Independent, 2020). Although European firms such as Thales and Siemens had been concerned with upgrading Egypt’s rail gadget, China is playing the maximum strategic role in Egypt’s transportation connectivity.

Still, China has no longer evolved a production base in Egypt anchored in manufacturing price chains to dominate the commercial landscape in Egypt notwithstanding its participation within the unique financial area created under Cairo’s Sustainable Development Strategy: Vision 2030. There remains a extraordinary opportunity for Europe to assume a strategic leadership function inside the improvement of the East Africa-toEastern Mediterranean hall thru EU incentivization of European groups to establishing of manufacturing flora in key sectors in Egypt. Already with a surplus energy era potential of over 10 GW, Egypt is one of the Mediterranean pleasant suited countries for hydrogen manufacturing. Cairo’s plans for an formidable 61 GW of mounted capacity from renewable strength assets – 32 GW from photovoltaic solar strength, 12 GW from concentrated solar electricity, and 18 GW from wind electricity (Tanchum, 2020a), could make Egypt one of the global’s main green hydrogen producers.

Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, Egypt’s Ministry of Finance forecasts that the Egyptian economic system will develop 3.3% in fiscal yr 2020-21 (Reuters, 2020a). The June 2020 body of workers-degree settlement among Egypt and the IMF on a $five.2 billion stand-by arrangement to offset COVID-19’s detrimental financial impact will assist make sure that the Egyptian energy juggernaut keeps momentum. Additionally, the Egypt-IMF agreement become strengthened via a subsequent $2 billion loan coordinated through UAE-based totally lenders Emirates NBD Capital and First Abu Dhabi Bank (CGTN Africa, 2020). Egypt’s large labor supply and purchaser marketplace, in conjunction with its adequate strength assets, may also make the jap hall the maximum attractive investment among the 3 trans-Mediterranean corridors within the instantaneous publish-COVID-19 duration.

Conclusions
North Africa’s leading overseas companions in trans-Mediterranean business connectivity might be the nations that put money into infrastructure this is directly tied to Africa-to-Europe production value chains. On nine March 2020, the European Commission and the High Representative of the Union issued a joint suggestion for “a new complete EU strategy with Africa,” based on a program of ‘5 partnerships’ for 1) green transition and electricity get entry to; 2) virtual transformation; three) sustainable increase and jobs; four) peace and governance; and five) migration and mobility. For the European Union to realize its ambition to associate with Africa primarily based at the 5 partnerships framework, the EU machine need to materialize its valuesbased approach thru European investments in trans-Mediterranean connectivity that create neighborhood manufacturing that participates in European cost chains. In the absence of coherent European Union machine coverage to incentivize EU member states and European corporations to cooperate in efficiently partnering with North African countries, main EU member states will companion with actors outside the union to create Africa-to-Europe corridors. Any area left via the European Union within the development of trans-Mediterranean connectivity might be crammed by China, Russia, Turkey and the GCC States.

The EU system should incentivize nearer coordination among member states and European firms to make investments on a strategically great scale in transportation connectivity and in production facilities so one can utilize that industrial connectivity in European production cost chains. While EU values, often manifested thru regulatory structures, are considered via the Union as one in every of its primary contributions, those will be more effortlessly normal whilst followed by means of European firms running production production centers in North Africa.

Automative production is one of the key increase sectors for North Africa and trans-Mediterranean connectivity. The EU have to promote inexperienced transition thru incentivizing European electric automobile producers to open production facilities in Morocco, Algeria, or Egypt to employ North Africans. North African countries are expanding their strength manufacturing capacity from renewable sources as well as their infrastructure for the garage and shipping of liquified herbal gasoline. The EU have to take the lead in developing the potential of newly emerging trans-Mediterranean hydrogen geographies through incentivizing European-African joint ventures in hydrogen manufacturing from renewable energy sources and the infrastructure for hydrogen garage and delivery.

The absence of EU partnerships with North African nations on a strategically massive scale will probable bring about transMediterranean connectivity that neither represents European values nor serves Europe’s interests. The European Union’s window of opportunity is now in the on the spot post-COVID-19 duration. The implementation of a robust partnership between the European Union and North Africa that produces Africa-to-Europe fee chains will result in trans-local architectures of business connectivity based totally at the values of the 5 partnerships framework with a purpose to operate for generations beyond the pandemic.

References

The Health Crisis Re-Shuffles the Cards of Geopolitics inside the Transport and Logistics Sector inside the Western Mediterranean: The Case of the Maritime Sector
Oumnia Boutaleb, Research Assistant in International Relations, Policy Center for the New South (PCNS)

Historically, shipping has always been a key region in the operation of the sector financial system. In the current era marked through interdependence and interconnection of states, economies and world and local trade, the delivery and logistics zone takes on an an increasing number of important position. It is consequently the motive force of development and nearby integration, specifically inside the countries of the Mediterranean area which have skilled a real revolution within the two ultimate a long time in phrases of the evolution in their infrastructures and method of shipping. The latter largely participate in the facilitation of mobility of humans and goods and inside the development of international change. Thus, higher shipping rules in addition to strengthening the delivery and logistics infrastructures, be it air, port, street or rail, are essential to the financial development of the countries of the Mediterranean basin at a home and nearby level however also across the world. Moreover, stable present day infrastructures are vital to inspire the increase of the Mediterranean nations, their economic and social improvement, in addition to their competitiveness in the global marketplace. Likewise, an green shipping region could most effective allow the improvement of all financial sectors via a more sizable introduction of jobs, extra beauty to overseas funding, and a social brotherly love among the people across the Mediterranean Basin.

The current fitness disaster, beyond having critically tested the sector fitness structures, has redefined global geopolitics. The large delivery networks have to readapt and regulate to the geopolitical evolutions and the brand new global dynamics. The courting between politics and transport is, consequently, paramount in the modern world. Moreover, there is a close link between geopolitical dynamics and the big shipping networks.

It is precisely the case of maritime transport and port infrastructures that have been placed underneath pressure throughout the COVID19 disaster. The Mediterranean Sea is an critical exchange and maritime course as it serves many markets, whether or not regional or worldwide. Comprising almost 87 ports with various specificities and sports, it has revealed the vulnerability of its activities and facilities in addition to their loss of efficiency and connectivity. It is therefore clear that the maritime region and the port pastime were impacted by using the brand new international dynamics and that they should fortify their resilience and competitiveness in the global marketplace.

With the COVID-19 Crisis, the Transport and Logistics Sector is Readapting in the Western Mediterranean
The shipping and logistics region is definitely many of the most harshly and without delay hit via the crisis, whether or not in the Mediterranean region or elsewhere. With the almost overall interruption of air connections, the discount of maritime sports and the drastic drop in rail and avenue traffic, the two sectors have suffered significantly, thereby impacting all economies in the place. However, despite the great problems for Western Mediterranean countries, they have taken some measures to counter the impact of the virus and endeavour to relaunch the two sectors.

While the health disaster has had a devastating effect at the air and urban delivery sectors, it has not completely delivered an cease to maritime traffic and the hobby of ports inside the Mediterranean (AVITEM, 2020). Quite the contrary, the scenario has enabled the maritime actors to urgently reflect at the hobby and connectivity of Mediterranean ports and maritime interest. Indeed, this activity has been maintained while all different method of transport have visible their hobby forestall or at the least considerably lower and the city ports have emerged as the new factors of trade stability. This is defined, as an example, by using the need to retain to deliver countries with uncooked materials and food products, because the cost chains are dispersed in numerous continents and often rely on one destination. More importantly, ocean freight has even needed to fill the void left by way of air transport to permit the transit of goods despite the fact that international maritime transport accounts for 80% of world alternate. Several ports have additionally had to innovate to preserve the level of hobby, including within the case of Barcelona, which has varied its port pastime. Barcelona has applied a new line, secured via the German company JSV Logistics, connecting Spain to the 2 Turkish ports of Gebze and Ambarli. Along with reducing shipping times for imports and exports, it need to enable the development of trade relations with Turkey.

Established very these days in July 2020, the ocean freight organisation Anarres Shipping, based totally in Cyprus, launched a new maritime line in August connecting three Western Mediterranean international locations, i.E., France via its port in Sète, Tunisia in Sousse, and Italy from Marina Di Carrara. This initiative seeks to convey these nations collectively by way of boosting hobby inside the non-precedence ports of the Mediterranean location in order to nearer members of the family and economic integration. The effects of the fitness disaster have found out the need to convey the deliver chain closer. Several areas like Africa or the Mediterranean, which within the past had been provided from Asia or the American continent, were closely hit by means of the crisis when conventional means of transport had been paralysed. Thus, several factories are these days moving from Asian nations to North African international locations. In Tunisia, for example, numerous factories are underneath production (Khdimallah, 2020).

In France, wherein ocean freight companies have discovered themselves in issue confronted with the results of the crisis, the Prime Minister has announced the provision of 30 million euros within the framework of the authorities rescue plan to ensure that jobs are safeguarded in the area as well as French competitiveness (Descamps, 2020). This quantity complements loans to a cost of one hundred fifteen million euros recently granted to them (Le Figaro, 2020).

The Grand Port Maritime de Marseille has been tough hit by means of the slowdown of maritime pastime due to the fact February 2020. Although it has recorded a drop of 15% of its maritime traffic, and this simplest inside the first sector of the year (visitors of 33.6 million de tonnes compared to 39.5 inside the same duration of the previous 12 months), and that for the give up of the yr a drop of 20% of turnover is expected, the deliberate investment of 57 million euros has been maintained and 6.Five million has been brought to inspire the relaunch of the port and therefore alternate activity (Dubessy, 2021c). Moreover, all the projects to start with deliberate have additionally been resumed, which include the brand new Cap Janet global terminal (Econostrum, 2020), to be able to connect France with its Maghreb neighbours. This strategy of funding renovation has allowed a rebound of pastime although it is still fragile. Incentive measures along with the discount of port charges and the signing of a covenant of dedication to satisfy the crises with the complete port community have boosted the resumption of world maritime interest.

These brief examples, albeit now not exhaustive, nonetheless have the merit of losing mild on a key element. While, within the beyond, Mediterranean ports operated independently of each other, favouring particular countries for his or her change pastime, the health crisis has shown them the need to sell better local cooperation and convey supply chains nearer. Moreover, maritime delivery and port hobby seem to have taken over from different method of shipping particularly at a time while the COVID-19 disaster has emphasised their resilience.

How Has the Mediterranean Been converted into a Geopolitical and Strategic Arena for Confrontation in the Maritime Sector?
The case of the Beirut port, representative of the geopolitical demanding situations inside the Eastern Mediterranean
While Chinese corporations exert their have an impact on in several ports in the place, thereby presenting get admission to to Middle Eastern markets and starting a door to Africa, inclusive of the case of Alexandria or Haifa in Israel, the current explosion within the port of Beirut has stirred Chinese interest. The resumption of the management of this port has found out a real geopolitical arm-wrestle between local and global powers. For China, a point of anchorage in the Lebanese port might allow a maritime route to be secured, inside the framework of its initiative “The New Silk Route”, toward Arab countries whilst heading off the limitations located in different ports of the place due to home political problems. However, Lebanon, historically near the West, would likely refuse to authorise this type of Chinese company in its territory, no matter Hezbollah’s inclination to this possibility, which does not conceal its choice to reorient the u . S . In the direction of the East through strengthening hyperlinks with China and Iran, specially due to the fact the United States has sounded the alarm approximately Chinese investments inside the vicinity. However, a reconstruction of the port by way of France, Lebanon’s traditional ally, could be more feasible and much less criticised via the USA. The French have additionally expressed their hobby inside the Lebanese port and have elevated the political, social and resource moves in the aftermath of the explosion that hit this country already weakened through the health crisis, thereby consolidating France’s affect in Lebanon. Meanwhile, Beijing has moved its exchange pastime toward the Libyan port of Tripoli.

In its look for influence inside the Western Mediterranean, Turkey sees the port of Beirut as a key point of presence and, because it handiest has its national ports in the vicinity, would need to increase its presence thru the Lebanese capital. Nevertheless, given the French-Lebanese courting and Lebanon’s reticence approximately more impact of Ankara inside the location, which it criticises for intervening within the Libyan battle, a reconstruction of the port with the aid of Turkey is quite unlikely. Moreover, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), whose Mediterranean pursuits have led them to end up inquisitive about the port of Beirut, percentage French fears over Turkey. The UAE have contributed humanitarian aid to Lebanon thru their employer Dubai Ports World, which they frequently use as a geopolitical lever. The latest tensions among the international locations and nearer family members among different countries have been transposed to the Eastern Mediterranean vicinity. An alignment between Abu Dhabi and Paris on the port issue might not be sudden.

Maritime delivery and port facilities: new strategic demanding situations of geopolitical clashes in the Western Mediterranean
The weak spot of Southern Mediterranean countries opens the manner to local and international pursuits. With a vulnerable Libya, a Tunisia with an uncertain domestic future and a cooling of family members between Algeria and Morocco, the Maghreb is weakened. Turkey’s so-referred to as neo-Ottoman pursuits as well as its preference to turn out to be a real regional strength push the united states of america to multiply the tasks in the Mediterranean. Its intervention in Libya, which it sees as a obstacle to the Maghreb and via extension sub-Saharan Africa, explains its interest inside the us of a. Moreover, the new global geopolitical dynamics can be visible, with regards to the shipping and logistics sector, in the south-western Mediterranean international locations. China, the primary country with ambitions in the Mediterranean, started its port growth in the framework of the New Silk Routes properly before the begin of the fitness crisis. Historically, the Mediterranean vicinity isn’t always a prime region for Chinese financial hobbies. It became no longer until 2008, following the economic disaster and the dearth of interest of positive ancient companions on this region, that the Asian strength confirmed renewed interest on this maritime space. In the framework of the New Silk Routes, China has located the Mediterranean basin on the centre of its deployment strategy in particular with recognize to transport infrastructure and port hubs thru manage of the Mediterranean logistics chains and maritime routes, making an investment substantially inside the ports of the place.

With the investment of Chinese corporations in Mediterranean ports, China has managed to impose its presence within the most strategic factors of the location.

Figure 1. The presence of Chinese establishments in Mediterranean ports

China has currently signed an financial and technical cooperation agreement with Algiers. In the framework of this agreement, Beijing plans the development of a deep-water port in El Hamdania (Cherchell). This essential challenge, in which China will make investments five to 6 billion dollars, may be one of the largest maritime ports at international level and consolidate China’s Silk Route venture (Algérie Presse Service, 2020). This new project might be able to accommodate ships as much as 21.500 EVP (Demmad, 2020). Moreover, it will make Algeria a regional industrial hub and could honestly offer Beijing an opening to an African exchange hall and extra affect on the continent.

Its Tunisian neighbour, considered an best friend of positive Western powers within the Libyan trouble, also enters the current geopolitical sport. With the fitness disaster, Tunis has recorded huge bad effects on key sectors of its economy, i.E. Shipping and logistics. The shipping region debts for 7% of GDP as well as 11.Five% of investments (Business France Tunis, 2020). In order to counter the attempts of Turkish and Russian influences inside the usa as well as the increasingly more good sized Chinese presence, the American ambassador met the Tunisian Minister of Transport and Logistics in October. The dialogue handled the opportunities of bilateral cooperation [1] in addition to aid concerning the disaster in the sectors handy (Ministère tunisien du Transport, 2020). The first investment to this quit, for an quantity of three hundred million dinars, worries the improvement of the infrastructure of the port of Radès. It is worth recalling that during 2017 a direct maritime line connecting this port with that of Quigdao in China had been implemented via the Spanish employer Transglory. Its goal is to reinforce change between Northern Mediterranean countries and China and Africa. Moreover, the Chinese, who for some time have sought to comfortable a port within the country, ideally Zarsis or Bizerte, [2] are still trying and feature lately confronted American hostility. However, the Chinese are continual and continue their progress in the shipping and logistics sectors on this Mediterranean u . S . A .. Indeed, a meeting changed into held on 10 November 2020 between the Minister of Transport and a delegation of the organisation Huawei on the implementation of technological and virtual solutions in delivery infrastructure, i.E. Airports, ports and urban delivery (Réalités, 2020). China consequently appears very gift via extraordinary channels in Tunisia in spite of the reticence of some of its competitors.

However, the view that powers historically confronted in the Mediterranean location will be the handiest ones looking for to impose their have an effect on is previous. The Gulf international locations an increasing number of emerge as key actors within the Western Mediterranean. Although their hobby specifically focuses on transport inside the eastern a part of the sea, these days we witness a developing hobby of Gulf international locations in North Africa and Southern European nations. Indeed, their maritime strategy is led by their choice for industrial and financial diversification, and the Northern and Southern Mediterranean international locations offer them a strategic place of desire. The UAE are undoubtedly the maximum lively united states in the transport and logistics sectors inside the Western Mediterranean. With the perpetual disagreement of powers in its traditional region of influence, i.E. The Persian Gulf, and because of the stagnation of the Libyan crisis and its choice to growth its geostrategic have an impact on within the Mediterranean, the UAE have been pressured to reorient their maritime strategy. In Algeria, for example, Dubai Ports World is answerable for the management of ports, Algiers and Djen Djen. It is also found in Spain and France in the port of Marseilles. Despite the good sized funding in diverse transport infrastructure and logistics initiatives particularly on the way to securitisation of the ports, the UAE are confronted with their European and Chinese competition in this vicinity.

The UAE have certainly chosen one of the countries with the most strategic geographical positions inside the area, i.E. Morocco, which in recent years has invested in formidable transport initiatives that have driven it as a key actor within the geopolitical scene within the Mediterranean. It bureaucracy a part of the united states’s commercial shipping corridor between Africa and Europe as well as Africa and Asia. Morocco, having passed the entire of the African ports in terms of capacity, will no longer take long to emulate the most important European ports on the northern Mediterranean shore, the Strait of Gibraltar or Algeciras, for instance. Moreover, this port has enabled Morocco to emerge as a factor of passage or a actual maritime and business hub. In other phrases, the port of Tanger-Med affords the country with a great geostrategic function and Euro-Mediterranean anchorage and transforms it into a port tremendously coveted by way of the global actors (Ministère de l’Equipement et des Transports du Maroc, 2011). Morocco is likewise the first African usa to have a excessive-speed educate whose extension may be able to connect Europe to Africa. The Chinese have announced their choice to participate inside the extension of this rail connectivity even though it is not guaranteed by using France, traditionally the maximum vital presence. With the COVID-19 crisis and the greater funding and Chinese hobby inside the united states of america, France further mistrusts an omnipresence of the Asian electricity, thereby complicating its implementation. It is likewise hindered by using France’s lack of European partners, exceptionally because Morocco has been very open to cooperation with different countries which includes Russia via the signing of financial association agreements. Until now those nations have handiest invested within the electricity sectors however funding in shipping infrastructures ought to not be disregarded, mainly in the event that they determine to enroll in Chinese or Emirati projects. Both have also shown interest in Morocco by using resuming most if the air hyperlinks.

However, the Emirati interest in Moroccan airport centers has by hook or by crook been undermined in view that 2018. Today, Saudi Arabia and the UAE are looking for to cozy their political and army affect in Mauritania via predominant investment in delivery infrastructure and airport facility tasks. In 2018, the Mauritanian authorities entrusted the management of Nouakchott airport to Abu Dhabi Airports Company PJSC for 25 years (Yabiladi, 2019). Moreover, the management of the port of Nouadhibou on the border with Morocco, which were entrusted to a Chinese organisation but appears to be crumbling, has stirred Emirati and Saudi pastimes, that have expressed their aim to invest. This would now not handiest hazard competing with the assignment of the Dakhla Atlantique port wherein Morocco is so deeply invested however would also counterbalance Moroccan pastimes in Mauritania. Russia, which has RSW (Refrigerated Sea Water) vessels in Mauritanian waters with a competitive capability, could additionally be attracted by way of Mauritanian ports.

Moreover, Turkey seems to gain floor inside the Western Mediterranean thru a rapprochement with Italy. Indeed, in July 2020, Turkey installed a transport hall bringing closer Italy however also Tunisia. Formed around a focal point, which is the deep water port of Tarento in southern Italy, a strategic vicinity in the Mediterranean controlled via the Turkish business enterprise Yilport, this hall will permit closer exchange relations among three areas, i.E. Africa, Europe and the Middle East. Along with connecting the Southern Mediterranean international locations to the European countries via Italy and the rail systems, this hall has even extra strategic hobby for Turkey and Europe. From Algeria and through the trans-Saharan course, it opens the manner in the direction of sub-Saharan Africa, which Turkey an increasing number of covets.

In comparison to the worldwide actors investing within the two sectors on the lookout for impact, the European approach turns out to be one-of-a-kind. Little inspired by its geopolitical targets, Europe specifically is based on nearby integration and the improvement of Western Mediterranean international locations. Indeed, along side the international locations in the north-western shore forming part of the European Union (EU), the Maghreb countries positioned at the southern shore are its closest neighbourhood. It is from this perspective that the Centre for Transportation Studies for the Western Mediterranean (CETMO) signed an agreement protocol with the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) in November 2018. The objective changed into to create an interconnected Mediterranean delivery hall and to increase all the method of shipping, i.E. Road, rail, port and airport networks. It will act as a link between the continent and Africa through the Western Mediterranean. However, it is true that the European nations of the region and those belonging to the Arab Maghreb Union (AMU) do no longer enjoy the equal stage of improvement, every other purpose to take this thing under consideration inside the midst of the monetary crisis. Europe will must offer aid to the maximum affected international locations and assist harmonise the adoption of felony devices within the field of delivery. Moreover, the rupture of the arena deliver chains has discovered the want to deliver them nearer collectively. The settlement ought to insist on the development of efficient logistics and delivery infrastructures to be able to enable the deliver chains to be perfected in the place and make the Western Mediterranean international locations key actors in worldwide change.

Conclusions
• With the weaknesses of transport discovered through the present day fitness disaster and the reality that the maritime region has validated extra resilient than air, road and rail sectors, inside the coming years the maritime sector will turn out to be the one to be able to channel the primary strategic pursuits within the Western Mediterranean.

• The international fee and deliver chains do no longer appear to be managed by the special states that should integrate into them to avoid a repeat of the difficulties experienced for the duration of the COVID-19 crisis.

• Northern and Southern Mediterranean nations, which throughout the crisis suffered due to their supply dependence on particularly distanced countries, have understood the need for a rapprochement. It consequently seems critical to broaden maritime connections among the European Northern and Southern countries to encourage local integration as well as a socioeconomic improvement, particularly among the 5 Maghreb international locations that have been seriously hit by means of the health disaster.

Recommendations
• European initiatives aimed at the transport and logistics zone are many. However, the European strategy vis-à-vis its neighbours remains blurred, notwithstanding splendid progress. It might consequently be vital for it to interact in a clean and described approach. The tenth Group of Transport Ministers for the Western Mediterranean (GTMO five+5) Ministerial Conference may want to provide the possibility to speak about the outcomes of the crisis on the two sectors, perceive the shortcomings in phrases of transport and infrastructure so that you can raise pastime, and implement eventualities for a way out of the disaster. The EU must additionally help the Western Mediterranean countries to mobilise funders, whether country wide or international, with the aim of strengthening the transport and logistics area inside the post-COVID-19 era.

• The approach of improvement of hubs in certain cities, which includes the TangerMed port, which has made the town of Tangier a port and maritime hub, or Mohamed VI airport, which has grew to become Casablanca into a key air hub between Asia, Africa and Europe, must be persevered and intensified.

• Finally, it would be appropriate to broaden the motorways of the sea within the Western Mediterranean so as to permit a connection between the European ports and countries and the southern shore. This initiative must allow an increase in the industrial flows in addition to a relocation of the industrial activity within the vicinity, thereby bringing approximately financial and social development. In order to again up these efforts, the development of avenue shipping need to be supported to enable connections even in the nations and boost the improvement of the whole delivery chain.

Notes

References

Chapter 2: Policies
The most important disruption that COVID-19 has brought to the transport zone calls for a pause to analyse the functioning and priorities of the modern transport gadget and its regulations. Is this the shipping system we want for the future? Has the pandemic discovered any relevant elements to be included in the making plans of the goal shipping gadget?

All the actors concerned in the development of the delivery device, from the administration to user institutions, along with managers and operators, have the responsibility to paintings collectively to pick out and define the suggestions that should make the delivery gadget a tool in favour of society. A safe, reachable, cheap and sustainable system that contributes to social integration and allows get admission to to vital offerings.

Integrated Transport Planning, the Digital Challenge and Decarbonization of Transport
Francisco Cardoso dos Reis, Head of International Union of Railways (UIC) Europe Chairman. UIC Rail System Forum Chairman

Introductory Notes
These early years of the 21st century have added remarkable growth and improvement in human pastime and society. This technology has given rise to new demanding situations and needs, and the pandemic has brought even greater formerly unseen phenomena.

To boom the transport area’s contribution to economic, social and environmental sustainability and respond to those needs, innovation ought to be at the provider of the commonplace excellent, in addition to the environmental, health-associated and practical challenges dealing with society due to climate trade and all different rising threats.

In maintaining with our favored line of reasoning, the key elements for the fulfillment of our sustainability and decarbonization objectives are incorporated delivery planning, enterprise of shipping with rail because the backbone, and a focal point on public and virtual transport.

To offer steerage and some preliminary considerations on structuring the transport machine, we can underline a number of our encouraged principles and alternatives.

Regarding mobility:

• Mobility that is secure, easy (with out air and noise pollutants), fluid, unfastened from bottlenecks and injuries, and integrated into the panorama in which it takes location;

• Mobility this is electricity green and environmentally pleasant;

• Mobility that is smart, shared, interconnected and person-concentrated;

Regarding structures and technologies:

• Connected and interconnected multimodal structures where the focus is on self sufficient and automated driving modes and the massive use of electrical propulsion and opportunity, non-polluting fuels;

• Implementation of efficient co-mobility supported with the aid of complementary, collaborative systems and technology between modes of delivery, from the heaviest (i.E. Trains) to the lightest (i.E. Pedestrians);

• Use of virtual technology primarily based on synthetic intelligence, large information, cloud computing, the Internet of factors, and so on.;

Regarding infrastructure:

• Widespread digitalization of infrastructure, and creation of greater efficient and green smart infrastructure;

• Implementation of extra powerful and extra energy-efficient mechanisms in all regions of asset management;

• Renovation/construction of latest multimodal stations as included spaces for mobility and the promoting of complementary shipping sports;

• Digital overhaul and automation of logistics regions used for goods delivery, particularly via the usage of automatic freight couplers for reception/ training operations.

Transport System Indicators and Inefficiencies
This introductory section, which aimed to structure and make clear our thinking, will now be observed by way of an outline of some key indicators and inefficiencies that signify the transport gadget and assist provide an perception into the complexity and scale of the hassle handy.

Some signs and tendencies to bear in mind are as follows:

• The world’s population has grown 12-fold in 3 centuries, from six hundred million human beings on the begin of the 18th century to nearly 8 billion within the 2d decade of the twenty first century. This is setting first-rate pressure on the worldwide and nearby economies, land use and transportation structures;

• After the Second World War, the human populace trebled and there has been a six-fold growth inside the consumption of power, most of which came from fossil fuels;

• The range of passenger automobiles in movement grew from 40 million to one thousand million, with avenue delivery leading the manner and representing the biggest polluter (EU: seventy two%), manner in advance of another mode;

• Europe’s railways (EU) convey 439 billion passenger-kilometres and 261 billion tonne-kilometres in step with year (2019), accounting for a marketplace percentage of seven.Eight% and 18.7% of the total quantity transported, respectively, and are a far cry from our decarbonization goals;

• Maritime transport is fundamental to the worldwide freight transport system, but its relative carbon footprint is excessive, for the reason that it bills for round four% of CO2 emissions;

• Aviation is an crucial, modern area for long-distance shipping, but its carbon footprint is likewise very high, when you consider that it’s far liable for round 14% of CO2 emissions. New kinds of mobility in this marketplace segment are consequently critical;

• The European shipping area is liable for 25% of CO2 emissions;

• The European road sector is liable for around 26 million deaths per 12 months, a parent that should be reduced significantly;

• Road infrastructure is presently used for seventy five% of the land shipping of products. It is vital that a full-size part of this be transferred to rail infrastructure;

• To gain the goal of climate neutrality by 2050, as set out inside the European Green Deal, shipping emissions should be decreased through ninety%;

• Today, more than 3 billion humans inside the world have a cellphone. Connected mobility therefore has masses of capacity for achievement.

We will now highlight the most vast shipping device indicators and inefficiencies that must be addressed:

• Pollution and emissions produced through the delivery machine;

• The charge of street site visitors accidents, the number of that’s unacceptable and need to be addressed;

• The excessive common price of transport/passenger, in keeping with the gadget’s current shape, and which ought to be decreased;

• The low potential of infrastructure used, given the intense use of character delivery and its low occupancy rate;

• The low electricity performance of inner combustion engine automobiles, which have not notably accelerated within the closing hundred years;

• The machine’s inefficient worldwide shipping deliver, given the modal instead of incorporated technique;

• Excessive land use via the device, given the return generated, particularly with recognize to road infrastructure;

• The delivery area’s heavy dependence on strength from fossil fuels.

We Are Very Inefficient!
In mild of the above observations, it’s far vital that we exchange our practices and improve our overall performance by means of adopting a coherent average imaginative and prescient and developing new regulations to enforce new solutions in terms of systems, device, infrastructure and delivery operations.

We ought to keep on bringing up figures to demonstrate the high-quality boom in call for in current years, the characteristics of the machine and the transport region’s importance and its impact on our lives, however no extra arguments are required to explain the modern state of affairs.

Furthermore, in response to the purpose of this record, we ought to finish which might be the most essential challenges worried in addressing citizens’ destiny mobility needs in phrases of infrastructure, equipment and range of services. Most importantly, we ought to take a holistic method whilst designing and operating the delivery system whilst retaining in thoughts that a virtual mind-set is prime to designing a device that ought to be seamlessly applied everywhere.

The Digital Challenge and Decarbonisation
We will now address the problem of the virtual project within the context of the revamped transport device we need.

Communication with transport community users has advanced from non-public touch to digital “self-provider”, which calls for greater online services. An growing variety of services are currently available on person portals managed directly by way of shipping agencies, infrastructure managers or 0.33 parties in collaboration with the primary two. The paradigm of the Internet and social networks has given upward thrust to new approaches to get admission to offerings, which prompt leading transport vendors to conform to new channels so that they can speak with their clients.

In view of this reality, it is essential to attention on making an investment in policies aimed at promoting purifier, extra efficient transport options to hyperlink smart regions and towns via clever modes of transport at excessive overall performance degrees in phrases of economic, social and environmental benefits.

To attain this, it is going to be vital to make investments and take positive measures, a listing of which is provided beneath:

• Increasing heavy and mild rail transport solutions for both passengers and freight via shifting closer to detectionand automation-primarily based answers, along with smart trains that run on smart infrastructure;

• Gradually building clever, connected road infrastructure with new substances to ensure ideal car-infrastructure conversation and provide extra features inclusive of electric charging answers for shifting motors;

• Making a firm commitment to the digitalization of maintenance processes, for both device and infrastructure in standard, with the aid of optimizing their lifespan and maximizing the monetary go back on transport operations;

• Making a company dedication to the maintenance and creation of intermodal stations and delivery coordination centres, which includes sizeable use of virtual structures;

• Streamlining and enforcing included ticketing and price answers supported by digital operational and monetary control structures, and capacity answers based totally on biometric manage and contactless era in fashionable;

• Promoting consumer-friendly and barrierfree solutions for all system users, specially humans with reduced mobility.

To describe our preferred method in more element, we trust it’s miles important to reply to the demanding situations cited through identifying precise device necessities in terms of infrastructure, shipping system and variety of services.

Requirements and Characteristics of the FUTURE Transport System
Regarding infrastructure, the subsequent requirements and characteristics are key:

• Increased implementation of computerized traffic management structures and operational aid systems;

• Widespread implementation of virtual infrastructure protection structures and applicable equipment (safety and security);

• Promotion of greater energy efficiency in facilities and across all shipping infrastructure management activity;

• Widespread implementation of infrastructure maintenance following a non-conventional approach based on a dense community of sensors established specially in infrastructure components, structures and equipment;

• Increased use of dependable new materials in infrastructure and device, such as substances with a regenerative ability to minimize the danger of breakdowns and incidents;

• More extensive use of synthetic intelligence, self-gaining knowledge of mechanisms and IoT in asset control;

• Renovation, construction and management of stations and secure interfaces to fulfill the wishes of an increasingly complicated, interconnected delivery device primarily based on contributions from special modes, which have to additionally be adapted to respond to all varieties of crises, which include the ones regarding health;

• Promotion of barrier-free get entry to to stations, interfaces, trains, underground trains, trams, buses and other modes to assure reliable and fluid interconnections, while additionally selling actual-time public records on transport operations and direct and indirect industrial opportunities.

With admire to virtual infrastructure management, we must cognizance on the subsequent:

• Communications
Next-era offerings on public cellular networks create possibilities for effective, engaging programs. Network coverage and standardization are also key factors for fulfillment on this location.

• Navigation structures
Satellite navigation to ensure that positioning bureaucracy an critical part of all navigation structures. Deployment of Galileo and addressing integrity are important for shipping control.

• Analytics
As sensor and commercial enterprise facts develops, massive information and enterprise intelligence tools can be used to transform facts into available information. Forecasting and making plans are the primary areas of utility.

• Computing systems
Mobile computing has advanced to allow person packages to assist deliver complicated, IoT-based totally services and absolutely unlimited applications through the usage of less expensive connected hardware.

In phrases of equipment and the variety of offerings, the subsequent necessities and traits are key:

• Increasing the usage of heavy and light smart trains, whose creation answers, such as infrastructure answers, can be increasingly green, superior and based on interconnected virtual structures;

• As in the case of infrastructure, and in keeping with preceding measures taken, growing the usage of structures and solutions for predictive renovation of cars;

• Making significant developments in automation of transport operations;

• Ensuring the large use of 5G by improving the IoT and growing a greater sizeable commercial variety of smarter shipping options;

• Automating the methods associated with the movement of goods (automatic robots, computerized coupling, and many others.) with a particular attention on actions at logistics terminals and optimization of the prices associated with this type of delivery;

• Ensuring the full-size use of virtual systems supported through synthetic intelligence for relationships with system customers in carrier outsourcing, tracking and implementation, and within the sale of products to supplement shipping offerings;

• Promoting incorporated multimodal delivery solutions for both passengers and goods based totally on digital systems and dedicated algorithms;

• Increasing shared mobility in every mode of shipping and among modes even as optimizing every mode’s operational management structures.

Much more can be brought, however we’ve got already included a long listing of tasks, regions of intervention and systems to be taken into consideration and adopted in every state of affairs.

A Holistic Approach to Transport Policy
In addition to those measures for the advertising of a new transport coverage, we firmly agree with that handiest the holistic approach ought to be used for strategic making plans of the destiny shipping gadget.

In our opinion, integrated delivery making plans is consequently an essential requirement and a duty a good way to help cope with topics inclusive of normal performance, functional optimization of the multimodal community, delivery protection, and supply predictability and balance.

This kind of holistic strategic making plans will make it feasible to optimize the investment programmes related to it, accordingly maximizing performance and the advantages for the community.

In addition, it is essential to offer a clean definition of gadget targets, in addition to in-depth knowledge of each modal network, a demand forecast and the contribution preferably made with the aid of each mode to the end result, i.E. Transportation of someone or a load from point A to point B beneath the high-quality feasible situations of consolation, safety, charge and time.

Finally, it have to be mentioned that adopting a planning methodology for each mode of shipping is an faulty approach that squanders scarce and steeply-priced assets. It must get replaced with our favored technique: a community-to-community approach that contributes to an optimized end result in terms of cost and carrier first-class.

The Challenge of Cybersecurity
We will now attention on a topic this is becoming increasingly more applicable in mild of the growing digitalization of our structures: the issue of cybersecurity.

As we all recognize, cybersecurity represents a complicated new assignment that should be tackled, given the increasing use of virtual technology and resulting actual and capacity weaknesses. These weaknesses have to be minimized by using improving the efficiency of safety/prevention mechanisms.

To acquire this macro-objective, the gadgets within the following non-exhaustive listing of measures are essential:

• Protecting the interoperability and integrity of shipping systems, which can be complex, automated and interconnected – a developing difficulty, given the systems method we advocate;

• Protecting protection, operational and business facts towards outside and inner assaults by way of strengthening network security, in particular in mild of the relevance of structures and critical system and infrastructure;

• Designing the structures architecture to fulfill the challenges of cybersecurity (safety with the aid of design);

• Promoting and growing strategies based totally on cooperation and top practices among all entities – CSIRTs cooperate in a network;

• Implementing credible, certified solutions for all factors of the systems and shifting towards powerful standardization.

What Type of Cooperation is Required?
Finally, we would love to touch at the type of cooperation that must be promoted amongst us, the nations placed in Southern Europe and North Africa. Transport answers are certainly related to the panorama in which they take location and will consequently continually have particular traits that set them aside. However, what units them aside is a ways much less crucial than what unites them.

Thus, the exchange of reports and excellent practices and every us of a’s participation in standardization strategies are key procedures and contributions inside the production of green, low-fee networks and systems.

With this cooperative imaginative and prescient, it’ll be essential to promote precise discussions, specifically regarding subjects such as cooperation in joint innovation actions and joint initiatives.

Moreover, as a method of undertaking greater in-intensity technical discussions and sharing information and exact practices, an intervention within international associations which include UIC, UITP and PIARC, specially, would be suited to assist generate an powerful return.

Our coordinated action at political and technical degree is a extremely crucial component that ought to be improved on and advanced through more joint initiatives along with meetings, debate boards and initiatives.

It is up to us to reply positively to these types of challenges provided by the new fact.

The Ethics and Politics of Transport and Mobility inside the COVID-19 Aftermath
Andreu Ulied, Partner-General Director of MCRIT Multicriteria

Has COVID-19 Pushed Us Into a “New Era”?
“There can no longer be any doubt, COVID-19 has pushed us into a new Era” said Nasser Kamel the Secretary General of the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM).

The want for a paradigm shift has been encouraged by maximum European political documents. According to the European Union’s 2020 “Circular Economy Action Plan” as an instance, over the following forty years, worldwide consumption quotes of biomass, fossil fuels, metals and minerals are anticipated to double, and annual waste technology is projected to increase via 70% through 2050. Half of all greenhouse fuel emissions and over ninety% of biodiversity loss and water stress are the result of aid extraction and processing. These numbers exemplify the pretty resource-in depth “Take-MakeWaste” monetary version of the world financial system. Is COVID-19 hard revel in going to make simpler the implementation of the “paradigm shift”?

To what extend COVID-19 will definitely represent a tipping point, a second of alternate, when political-objectives and techniques agreed years in the past may be sincerely carried out moving us towards a new Era –as said by using Nasser Kamel? Will our destiny be extraordinary due to the complete international handed via the COVID-19 revel in –a unique time whilst complete countries served as “guinea-pigs” (Harari, 2020) in massive scale social experiments?

Would humans, anywhere around the world, be equipped to just accept their intimacy being monitored as a way to increase public fitness and protection? Would citizens choose a technocratic/authoritarian authorities primarily based on information and black-field algorithms? Would human beings emerge as against globalisation and wish to boost antique political borders and Nation-States? Are future governance paradigms up with human beings selections? The evolution of technology will leave us to more authoritarian or more participatory sort of authorities? To what enlarge the experience of COVID-19 will change ourselves? The manner we work, we circulate and communicate, the way we live? The policies we need? Are we transferring closer to a dystopia close to “Qualityland”, the unconventional by using Marc-Uwe Kling posted in 2018?

The CETMO and the IEMed released a joined initiative to discover publish-COVID19 scenarios in June 2020. “COVID-19 has had an exceptional effect on a planetary scale”, said both establishments. “Economic recuperation is an instantaneous project, in addition to knowing what new medium and lengthy-term scenarios this pandemic will draw”. What happens when anyone works from home and communicates best at a distance? Whilst hundreds of thousands of people get used to ecommerce? While passenger shipping changed into reduced to the minimal, in addition to many global logistic chains, ecommerce was booming.

At the moment I am writing, December 2020, the COVID-19 vaccine is being mass produced by using pharmaceutical industries and hundreds of tens of millions of doses are planned to be dispensed early subsequent year to the entire world populace. The most likely hypothesis is that COVID-19 impact can be to boost up already existing tendencies (e.G. Digitalisation, from ecommerce to teleworking) however infrequently inducing significant shortterm changes on social values, guidelines and governance approaches. The technique to the pandemic has been scientific and technologic, at least in the Western World. In a second of rising political populism, the prestige of scientists, the paintings of fitness specialists and the performance of the industry has been known. Economic rules adopted in maximum developed countries, mainly in Europe, learnt a large deal from the enjoy of the 2008 disaster. Austerity regulations implemented by using European establishments inside the 2008 crisis have been without difficulty forgotten and expansionary guidelines had been applied rather, with out hesitation, via the European Central Bank. We learnt plenty at some stage in COVID-19, we have extra records and knowledge, however our values, and desires, will probable remain more or less the same.

This article further investigates tragic moral dilemmas highlighted via how COVID-19 has been handled in specific nations. Even if mobility and shipping, and the Mediterranean location, are constantly inside the heritage of the object, the ethical and political discussions goal a much broader scope.

CV-19 as Large-Scale Global Experiment
When the World Mobile Congress in Barcelona turned into cancelled the twelfth February 2020 due to international American organizations along with Google, Amazon or Facebook, or Apple, decided now not to wait, few specialists were able to see the future ahead, and no flesh presser become starting the instruction for a “worsecase” situation.

During months, throughout global humans physical mobility become limited to just quintessential reasons. At the same time, virtual conversation grew exponentially. It changed into a living laboratory of a one-of-a-kind world, an utopian global running at two speeds: manufacturing based on mass customisation and specialized freight shipping, rapid automatized logistics relaying on clever machinery or robots, and people at domestic, running to offer digital services to others, moving simply at a on foot distance from domestic. Many humans in massive cities bought stationary bikes though Internet, and got them simply few hours or days afterword’s. Lucky people had indifferent homes in suburbs or small villages, had greater time to take care of their gardens at the same time as working via clever mobile phones. The traditional standards to assess transport and mobility rules appeared by using then out of date (e.G. Most effective mobility guidelines can not be the ones capable of shipping as many people as possible, as fast as viable and at minimum price, simply if people become like freight).

Key political beliefs including decoupling economic increase from transport call for, have been also tested. On 28-29 March 2019, in Nicosia, Cyprus, the MED Urban Transports Community coorganised two conferences on round financial system and sustainable mobility, just before COVID-19. “The shift from sectoral making plans to integrated making plans can offer better and greater sustainable opportunities for the city areas, even as ensuring the safety of citizens and the safety of the surroundings”, changed into stated in Nicosia, related to options answers that lessen shipping wishes, lively and coffee-impact mobility solutions, multimodal transport as an included service and optimised freight potential through shared solutions and dispensed centres.

It become a time of quandary. The choices human beings and governments took in the sort of turbulent times confronted “tragic dilemmas” certainly. Values which includes protection and safety, or public health, had been considered a priority –the humans’s right that deserved paramount protectionin most democratic international locations. But concrete policies differed appreciably from usa to usa, even among richer international locations; fashioned by way of historical legacies, political subculture and social mores. In less advanced nations, restricting monetary activities can also reason even worse impacts on humans’s wellbeing and public health. Totalitarian surveillance technologies applied in Asian countries established to be greater effective than citizen empowerment rules in European international locations.

It was also a time of paradoxes. Political choices that in normal times could take years of deliberation had been authorised in a rely of hours. New information and verbal exchange technologies have been pressed into carrier, in addition to laboratories of pharmaceutical organizations to expand a vaccine. After an initial surprise on stoke markets, some groups (the identical first to cancel their participation on the Barcelona World Mobile Congress) began to develop unexpectedly. The NASDQ index hardly reflects the impact of the COVID-19. At the identical time, the discounts on GDP in Europe were substantial, particularly in Southern Mediterranean regions.

Figure 1. NASDQ www.Macrotrends.Net/ 2489/ nasdaq-composite-index-10year-each day-chart

Facing Tragic dilemmas
China, then South Korea, Hong-Kong, Taiwan or Singapore, trusted social area, ubiquitous sensors and powerful algorithms:

By closely monitoring people’s smartphones, utilizing masses of tens of millions of face recognising cameras, and obliging people to test and record their body temperature and medical situation, the Chinese government can not best speedy discover suspected coronavirus companies, but also track their moves and identify everybody they got here into contact with. A range of mobile apps warn residents approximately their proximity to infected sufferers (Harari, 2020).

There are 2 hundred million surveillance cameras in China, many of them ready with a completely efficient facial reputation technique. They even seize the moles at the face. It is not possible to escape from the surveillance camera. These cameras ready with artificial intelligence can observe and compare every citizen in public areas, in shops, at the streets, at stations and at airports. The whole infrastructure for virtual surveillance has now proved to be extraordinarily effective in containing the epidemic (Han, 2020).

The Swedish historian Sverker Sörlin, himself a CV-19 survivor, stated in a piece of writing that there was by no means simply one international pandemic but many, every shaped through its very own country wide lifestyle. Sweden opted for a calmer – and especially debatable – technique, empowering citizens. Instead of draconian lockdown, and virtual surveillance, social distancing was a be counted of self-regulation. Citizens were informed to apply their judgment, and to take character responsibility within a framework that rested on mutual trust, rather than pinnacle-down manipulate. The “Swedish version” could have been exported to nations consisting of Spain, Italy or Greece? In Mediterranean international locations tiers of social and institutional trust are a whole lot lower, societies are much less disciplined and not so keen deploying virtual technology to display human beings every day lives.

“I want to strain that for the giant majority of the people of this united states of america, we should be going about our commercial enterprise as regular” said Boris Johnson on March 3. Other political leaders, in Europe and America, for similar reasons, were additionally reluctant to assume ambitious choices, whilst still the variety of human beings doubtlessly affected by CV-19 was expected to be small sufficient. From a natural financial factor of view, it is understandable that public administrations hesitated a lot to engage is formidable measures along with proscribing mobility to the minimal and preventing the economic activity of the entire usa for weeks. Measures to be taken through governments to flatten the CV-19 growth curve would provoke a drastic discount in monetary activity, which would bring about a reduced welfare for “the great majority” of humans, specially low-income lessons and youngsters. The most critical social advantage, obviously, became saving lives by and large from the aged population.

After tracking the experience in China, a set of modellers on the Imperial College London concluded that if the epidemic was now not aggressively contained within the UK, half a million people might die— and extra than 2 million inside the US. Models together with this one helped to steer the British authorities to comply with a good deal of continental Europe, following the experience of China and South Korea in setting the financial system right into a coma (Tim Harford, Financial Times 27 March 2020).

Donald Trump argued on the White House on 23 March that the country might have to accept drastic publichealth consequences for the sake of retaining the economic growth. A few hours later, one in every of his Republican allies went quite a bit further down the same direction. Dan Patrick, Texas’ Republican lieutenant governor, on Monday night cautioned that he and other grandparents might be inclined to risk their health or even lives so as for america to “get back to work” amid the coronavirus pandemic. “Those of us who are 70 plus, we’ll cope with ourselves. But don’t sacrifice the country,” Patrick stated on Fox News’ Tucker Carlson Tonight. The GOP respectable, who’ll turn 70 next weeks, went on to mention, “No one reached out to me and said, ‘As a senior citizen, are you willing to take a hazard to your survival in trade for keeping the America that America loves for its youngsters and grandchildren?’ And if this is the trade, I’m all in.” It is in opposition to commonplace feel to accept as true with that it can be economic normalcy or in any respect while a plague sweep via the population. The harm to the social values of the residents can be devastating, due to the fact the rights of the minority of aged people have been omitted after a lifestyles of labor, once retired, and consequently anybody will study that they ought to anticipate a similar destiny.

Introducing New Values When Assessing Transport Policies
We know that inside the new digital world our enjoy of distance and time adjustments noticeably. Our ideals, that have existed for hundreds of years, are immune to change: but we want new principles to better understand the brand new reality and support our selections. A robust need arises for a paradigm shift on delivery planning and management, just due to rising new technologies and existence styles and values of recent generations.

As planes stop flying, people prevent making pointless journeys, and streets are freed of motors, the influences of mobility is frequently invisible (due to the fact taken-forgranted) end up starkly apparent. One of the more incredible visualizations of the first months of 2020 was a evaluation of air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide) around Wuhan before and after the stern quarantine measures had been brought. Nitrogen Dioxide is a manufactured from the combustion of gasoline. We rightly take emergency movement to fight COVID-19 however no longer to fight air pollutants due to auto mobility, or maybe weather exchange.

We recognize that the political panorama is shifting. Nowadays, European mobility and transport regulations have a comprehensive set of desires, well beyond simply decreasing bodily distances by way of quicker travel. This does now not mean that decreasing tour time is not an critical welfare gains, as an example to tens of millions of people commuting daily by means of public shipping, to intercity rail travellers, to intercontinental air business visitors. Instead, it method that shipping rules purpose at improving a extra comprehensive set of desires inclusive of accessibility, sustainability, liveability and affordability.

There are essential nice and negative externalities of the measures of proscribing mobility to be also taken into consideration. Some analysts estimate that more lives had been saved in Wuhan due to the discount in air pollution than the numbers who have died from the virus – possibly as much as 20 instances as many. Given this fact, how a whole lot mobility need to be limited in Wuhan to any extent further? How a good deal need to we make investments on the electrification of car fleets? How a good deal time guests ought to agree to loose with the intention to reduce pollutants and shop lives? Forcing human beings to stay at domestic generates mental stress that have to also be taken into consideration. Mobility is a human want, much like freedom, or prosperity.

A possible end is the need to reconsider the standards conventionally applied in delivery and mobility policies to degree “social well-being” (e.G. Stated in reputable hints which includes the 2014 European Commission Guideline applied via INEA or the EIB). After the COVID-19 we’ve got learnt a massive deal when it comes to trade-offs among the fee of public fitness, social inclusion and conviviality, on the one hand, and the cost of monetary growth in phrases of presenting those jobs people additionally want, and the way restraining the fundamental people’s proper of loose movement affects on each.

Facing tragic dilemmas, a feel of prudence and commonplace sense might advise to apply measures regularly, sooner than later, to begin through now not so high-priced measures of purchasing all clinical gadget vital to face a worse case situation and providing right data for people to adapt their behaviour to the situations. This should have been the primary affordable choice at the 14th of February, after closing the World Mobile Forum.

References

Inter-Modal Transport within the Age of COVID-19: UNECE Efforts to Help Build Pandemic-Resilient Transport Systems
Roel Janssens, Secretary, Working Party on Transport Trends and Economics, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE)

The Role of Transport in COVID-19 Pandemic Development, Spread and Containment
Patchwork of uncoordinated movements
In an initial response to the outbreak of the pandemic, many Governments closed their land, air and sea borders to non-important traffic. These measures had as a result that tens of lots of trucks got stuck at borders not handiest throughout the ECE vicinity however across the complete globe which had a sizable effect on the shipping of crucial items, inclusive of ingredients, prescription drugs, clinical supplies and fuels, specially for the economically most vulnerable countries which often rely closely on imports to cover their primary needs.

The training discovered from the immediately and quick-term measures taken with the aid of Governments display that the shipping quarter become now not organized to operate in the situations resulting from the pandemic. Implementing regulations like live@domestic, which created an expanded need for consumption and a 360 degree turn closer to e-commercial enterprise, can’t be observed by way of remaining borders or imposing a chain of restrictions to truck drivers. This combination created a disruption of international supply chains and consequently briefly shortages in food, critical components and medicines.

Transport area and broader monetary effect
These regularly-immoderate restrictions to move-border and transit freight shipping further aggravated the monetary and social influences of the pandemic surprise to the global economic system. According to WTO figures the worldwide economic system (GDP) is projected to contract in 2020 sharply by up to eight% and global change will lower by means of as much as 32% in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI), an index of the triumphing path of economic tendencies within the manufacturing and provider sectors recorded in March 2020 a dramatic decline in the production sectors. While railway freight transportation which has some of one of a kind comparative blessings such use of much less manpower over lengthy distance, performance and environmental overall performance suffered less, as a minimum within the UNECE area, the street freight delivery sector at the contrary become hit hard. According to International Road Transport Union (IRU) records, revenue reduced by forty% at some point of the confinement duration (in evaluation to 2019 figures). Many transport operations together with shipping of car components, garb, vegetation and construction substances nearly got here to a entire stand nevertheless at some point of confinement.

Vulnerabilities of international shipping systems discovered
In less than no time the acute vulnerability of international delivery structures to outbreaks of communicable illnesses have become apparent. Also in the postCOVID-19 generation however the global will in all likelihood continue to be notably interconnected and will in addition rely on seamless and efficient delivery and logistics structures. As communicable illnesses have passed off again and again in the past decades, like H1N1, H5N1, MERS, SARS, Ebola, and could in all likelihood keep to occur themselves within the future, a worldwide initiative is needed to decorate international cooperation and coordination amongst inland transport government and in doing so fortify the preparedness and resilience of countries to viable destiny outbreaks.

UNECE Sustainable Transport Division – Immediate Responses
Border crossing facilitation tasks
When international locations round the world started out remaining borders and enforcing lockdowns, the global deliver chains had been deeply affected. Perhaps you, your self skilled a lack of primary goods on the supermarket or pharmacy. With customers buying in bulk out of worry, stores struggled to restock their cabinets.

There are diverse UN Conventions, which includes the Customs Convention at the International Transport of Goods beneath Cover of TIR Carnets (TIR Convention, 1975), the Convention at the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods via Road, (known as CMR and its additional protocol, e-CMR), the International Convention on Harmonization of Frontier Controls of Goods (or Harmonization Convention) that govern the transport of goods across borders, making sure a clean and green transit thru customs. As international locations carried out strict border measures, the same old, internationally agreed upon rules and conditions, which follow to move were set aside. This disaster not simplest led in some instances to shortages in meals and other essential items it additionally ended in social impacts where shipping experts which includes truck drivers, customs and border officials regularly got stuck for days in a row at border clearance posts, uncovered to feasible COVID-19 contagion given the frequently precarious infrastructure and sanitary scenario at many land border crossings across the vicinity.

The UNECE Sustainable Transport Division took a number of projects to make certain that borders persevered to let goods via:

• In February 2020, UNECE, in partnership with other UN Regional Commissions and accomplice businesses, hooked up an Observatory on border crossing fame because of COVID-19. This online platform collects and illustrates, on a scientific basis, statistics about the reputation of inland freight border crossings, which includes regulations and regulatory necessities in vicinity. The predominant goal of the Observatory is to be an records-sharing platform for delivery region stakeholders, providing facts on measures imposed by using distinctive Governments allowing transport corporations to evolve their itineraries and transport solutions hence. The Observatory, as of October 2020, is a platform that offers up to date records at the modern border crossing popularity in 174 UN Member States.

• In parallel, UNECE put in vicinity an “Open the borders” campaign to maintain the borders open for delivery of goods. On sixteen April 2020, the Executive Secretary of UNECE and the Secretary General of IRU sent a joint letter to all Heads of Customs government calling on them to take into account the application of specific measures and appropriate practices to decrease the effect of COVID-19 on the international supply chains.

• eTIR International System: UNECE and IRU have been working on an digital version of the TIR gadget allowing for a paperless and contactless working surroundings whilst persevering with to make sure the secure and cozy delivery of goods. In the midst of the COVID-19 disaster it become decided to boost up the implementation of the eTIR global gadget contactless surroundings to assist in countering the spread of the virus. The United Nations (UN) Secretary-General’s file [1] entitled “Shared duty, global harmony: Responding to the socioeconomic influences of COVID19”, mentions: “Innovative tools inclusive of UN eTIR/eCMR systems and other tools that allow the exchange electronic records with out bodily touch and facilitate the drift of goods across borders have to be used”. Furthermore, after the preliminary name to put in force eTIR (7 April 2020), 17 Governments and the European Union (28 Member States) responded positively.

• Implementation of the United Nations Development Account (UNDA) assignment on “Transport and trade connectivity in the age of pandemics: UN solutions for contactless, seamless and collaborative delivery and alternate”. The undertaking promotes the implementation of United Nations answers, inclusive of requirements, pointers, metrics, tools and methodologies to at once help Governments, which includes customs and different border businesses, port authorities, and the business network global-extensive, to keep shipping networks and borders operational, to facilitate the waft of goods and services, while on the same time containing the in addition spread of the COVID-19 virus.

Offering a platform for multi-stakeholder cooperation and coordination
Establishment of an Informal Multidisciplinary Advisory Group on Transport Responses to the COVID-19 Crisis

At its eighty-2d annual session (Geneva, 25–28 February 2020), the Inland Transport Committee (ITC) “Requested the UNECE secretariat, in close cooperation with the Bureau, with the guide of interested Governments and key stakeholders to behavior important research on provisions in existing frameworks and new needed areas of work to sell cooperation among delivery authorities in the subject of counteracting the effects of emergency conditions of go-us of a nature, including epidemics and pandemics, and gift this statistics to the Working Party on Transport Trends and Economics (WP.5) for consideration of similarly steps and for inclusion to its programme of work.”

In reaction to this tasking, and because the pandemic further developed, the secretariat set up, under auspices of the Working Party on Transport Trends and Economics (WP.5) an Informal Multidisciplinary Advisory Group on Transport Responses to the COVID-19 Crisis which had its first digital assembly on nine June 2020 and its 2d on 8 September 2020 as part of the thirty-third session of WP.5. Based on inputs obtained from Governments and different stakeholders for the duration of these Multidisciplinary Advisory Group periods and based on steerage obtained from WP.5 in September 2020 and the ITC Bureau at its session in November 2020, a operating file has been organized by using the secretariat and submitted to Inland Transport Committee for consideration and possible endorsement of subsequent steps. Inter alia, the file identifies a fixed of instructions learned for international inland transport and for the customs and border management area.

Lessons learned for worldwide inland transport encompass:

• The significance of instantaneous coor
dination in response to the outbreak and the powerful ongoing coordination at regional, national and international degrees.

• The significance of green supply chains and keeping items moving.

• The need to accumulate and feed proof
and statistics into selection making.

• The digitalization of processes has made them touch-free and safer and
more green.

• The need for clean communication to
the general public and to operators on
adjustments to techniques and new policies.

• Engagement throughout sectors (e.G. Health, transport, customs, enterprise) has been vital in using an proof
based totally technique to selection making.

Lessons found out for customs / border control include:

• Need for superior preparedness –
use of digital services, threat management (selectivity and profiling before carrying out bodily checks), non-intrusive inspection (NII) gadget, availability of catastrophe response/ mitigation plans and commercial enterprise continuity plans.

• Need for enhanced coordination – use of a whole of presidency technique, Coordinated Border Management (CBM), coordination with neighbouring international locations and/or at regional tiers, particularly in case of pandemics.

• Streamlining and simplifying Customs methods – green lanes for freight traffic.

• Transparency of documentary requirements – all important data should be publicly to be had.

The record also identifies several possible guidelines for attention and viable endorsement of the ITC at its 84th Session in February 2021.

Discussions inside the framework of the Working Party on Transport Trends and Economics (WP.24)

In order to recognize the effect of COVID-19 on intermodal delivery and logistics, the Chair and Vice-Chair of WP.24 with assist of the WP.24 secretariat organised and held a digital Friends of Chair meeting to discuss those influences and the instructions learned inside the enterprise.

WP.24 continued the dialogue on COVID-19 and intermodal transport and logistics at its 63rd session held on 28-30 October 2020. The dialogue centered at the developments and impacts from the evolving pandemic, response measures taken and their evaluation as well as possibilities for freight transport. WP.24 confirmed the instructions found out exchanged in the course of the Friends of the Chair meeting. It showed and known as for restoration measures which would create the important situations to increase competitiveness of intermodal transport specifically versus road shipping. It warned of unwarranted freight delivery subsidies which may also distort the transport marketplace and gradual down its transition to a extra sustainable one. WP.24 diagnosed that the pandemic has driven governments to increase the significance they give to the digitalisation of transport documents. WP.24 underscores that digitalisation ought to be an critical part of the very a great deal wanted transport optimization manner in both operations and infrastructure. WP.24 advocated, in the course of its 63rd session, a Handbook for countrywide grasp plans for freight shipping and logistics which, amongst others, showcases these shipping optimizations tactics. The guide may be posted in the spring of 2021.

WP.24 additionally diagnosed that the pandemic can also result in extra diversification and neighborhood sourcing for deliver chains. Such a improvement might also have a superb effect on freight delivery in a medium term.

Bringing those concerns collectively, if you want to guide a further improvement of intermodal freight delivery – a development very an awful lot had to hold freight delivery system transition to a more sustainable one, in addition to one that would be extra resilient to emergency situations including pandemics – WP.24 permitted a resolution on strengthening intermodal freight transport. The decision proposed by WP.24 has been followed on the 83rd Session of the Inland Transport Committee in February 2021.

Measuring the Transport Impacts of COVID-19
Official annual statistics stay a crucial benchmark to tune progress over time, but the COVID-19 disaster has additionally pressured coverage makers and statisticians alike to take into account new kinds of data resources. With some traditional surveys, censuses or even some administrative facts assets both hampered or absolutely unavailable, statisticians were pressured by way of events to attempt to measure transport and mobility in exclusive methods. There has been an emergence of “flash” indicators, regularly based totally on both mobile community operator region statistics or tolling/automobile dimension resources, to allow reasonably accurate facts to be launched on a month-to-month, weekly or maybe each day foundation. These signs won’t usually have the label of legit records, but while produced to a high diploma of exceptional with the aid of reputable statisticians, they provide a useful, trusted source of information in a timely fashion. Since the disaster started out, the ECE secretariat has been monitoring shipping influences through the production and protection of a wiki of short-term legit facts assets relevant to move tracking. At the time of writing, there are greater than a hundred and fifty resources connected to pages from almost each ECE member State. These records cowl a extensive variety of delivery topics.

Measuring modifications in avenue visitors levels
The use of vehicle counters and, in some cases, toll facts have drastically extended their prominence at some stage in 2020. The range of cars in line with day on key corridors can be a totally pertinent proxy for general traffic degrees, and aggregating multiple points with different statistics can offer a beneficial index that can be comparable to vehicle-km. Data also can be received from tolling statistics on main highways, as is the case in Germany. Figure 1 suggests an index of various traffic sorts on roads in Great Britain. The records are an index based upon an equivalent day in the first week of February 2020, for motors, Light Goods Vehicles (LGVs) and Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs). Data are not seasonally adjusted, and so public holidays are without a doubt seen as dips. The graph indicates that automobile traffic became continuously decrease than goods automobiles for the duration of the lockdown period.

Figure 1. Changes in street visitors ranges in Great Britain for unique automobile sorts in comparison to 1st week of February 2020.

These visitors developments also are visible in facts for other countries. For instance, Germany’s truck toll mileage index at its minimum on 30 April 2020 became 15.6 in line with cent lower than the baseline, while an index measuring overall land mobility hit a low of 59 in line with cent underneath the baseline. Similarly, inside the United States of America, the every day passenger Vehicle Miles Travelled index hit a low of 60% underneath the baseline on 12 April 2020.

Measuring adjustments in road protection
With document falls in road visitors stages in many countries, there has been awesome interest in the effect on street visitors accidents. The secretariat determined relevant monthly facts for twenty ECE member States, and further information for a few subnational entities together with New York City, Greater London and Northern Ireland. The impact on road visitors accident numbers has numerous notably by way of united states of america, with a few nations seeing report decreases in fatalities even as others seeing insignificant adjustments from the baseline or maybe small increases. Comparisons across time are difficult as provisional statistics are generally collated on a exceptional basis to finalized annual numbers. Therefore, facts have only been in comparison with previous years’ provisional monthly information. Figure 2 shows the change in fatalities between April-June 2019 and April-June 2020 for all to be had international locations with monthly facts, with a negative range indicating a decrease. Users are strongly cautioned to seek advice from u . S . A . Web sites linked to on the online wiki organized by way of UNECE so as understand the limitations of these provisional numbers.

Figure 2 suggests that maximum nations did see a yr-on-12 months decrease in visitors fatalities in the 2d zone of 2020, with many experiencing over a 30 per cent reduction. These falls in fatalities are absolutely proper information, however additionally need to be considered in the context of document falls in visitors in many nations, which had been generally a good deal larger (as evidenced in the traffic information above).

Public delivery
When public delivery statistics are based on price tag or card swipes, or access/go out sensors, it’s far often feasible to put up weekly or maybe day by day passenger figures with a quick time lag. This is the case for nations which includes Denmark (Copenhagen), Portugal (Lisbon), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (London Underground) and United States of America (New York City subway). Figure three suggests weekly passengers on the Copenhagen metro as an index in comparison to the common number of passengers on weekdays in the eighth and 9th weeks of 2020.

Figure 2. Reductions in street visitors coincidence fatalities, April-June 2020 versus AprilJune 2019. Available international locations simplest.

Intelligent Transport Systems
Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) have the capacity to revolutionize mobility, converting the whole thing from the manner we move and speak to how we layout delivery law and alter motors. ECE offers a completely unique platform for shaping the prison framework and making sure the safe advent of destiny technologies. Since 2004, the ECE Transport Division has led the dialogue on ITS and in 2012 it formulated a Road Map for promoting ITS.

Practically all UNECE Inland Transport Committee (ITC) Working Parties had been and are dealing with Intelligent Transport Systems. For instance:

The Global Forum for Road Traffic Safety (WP.1) is setting up a proper organization of professionals to prepare a new conference on using automated cars in visitors.

The World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) promotes ITS matters on-board of motors, consisting of Lane Departure Warnings Systems (LDWS), Advanced Emergency Braking Systems (AEBS) and on-board diagnostics (OBDs) to call only a few.

Intelligent and automatic delivery structures tend to lessen the frequency and duration of human-to-human contact (social distancing) at the same time as in shipping and accordingly reduce the likeliness of contagion of communicable sicknesses.

Possible way ahead in turning inland shipping systems extra pandemic resilient, ongoing UNECE activities
At regulatory degree:

As its eighty-0.33 consultation in February 2021, the UNECE Inland Transport Committee mandated the continuation (beneath WP.Five auspices) of the paintings of the informal multidisciplinary advisory organization on developing shipping responses to the COVID-19 and comparable global crises.
In 2021, the Advisory Group will hold to build on the work finished in 2020, particularly it’s going to:
Continue to discover particular measures/ equipment to be advanced geared toward increasing the resilience of the inland transport machine to future pandemics, together with via the improvement of, e.G. Emergency plans/ protocols highlighting for example which shipping networks and border crossings ought to be kept operational whilst confinement measures need to be put in location;
Explore the improvement of a pressure-take a look at mechanism to assess the resilience of various ECE (and different) Conventions to identify wherein amendments can/must be made so one can turn those criminal contraptions more pandemic evidence.

• As in line with its unique mandate, in near coordination and cooperation with different UNECE Working Parties underneath ITC auspices, the Group will continue to explore whether or not a new international regulatory regime for the inland transport region in case of epidemics, pandemics and different move-border emergency issues is needed or whether making amendments to current legal contraptions administered through ECE and different stakeholders suffices.

• As consistent with the suggestions of its 2020 report, it’s going to explore whether or not efforts need to be undertaken toward the development of a uniform, broadly regular certificate (much like the one in Annex three of the Green Lane Communication) that certifies that the driving force is a shipping worker and, as such, waived from border crossing restrictions.

At the level of current United Nations prison devices / Conventions:

• Consider introducing e-health certificate for group and/ or passengers, together with to the existing UN transport conventions and their electronic/ virtual programs inclusive of eTIR, eCMR and so on.

• Consider developing policies for transiting and cooperation amongst delivery government in case of pandemics/ pass-border emergencies, inclusive of amendments to the Harmonization Convention, e.G. With the aid of an additional annex.

• As cited above, behavior stresstests on the various ECE Conventions to discover in which amendments can/should be made that allows you to lead them to extra “pandemic-resilient” (i.E. TIR/ eTIR, CMR/eCMR and the Harmonization Convention) to be undertaken by using relevant Working Parties.

At the extent of digitalization:

• Continued support for shipping/ alternate digitalisation: enhance consciousness globally and if feasible, accelerate the digital implementation possibilities of diverse of the already present transport prison instruments inside the inland shipping quarter: TIR/eTIR, CMR/eCMR, the URL/ eURL consignment word for rail shipping and so on. A focus on digitalisation and automation should flip out powerful pandemic mitigation tools as direct human contacts in clearance procedures are now not needed. Online schooling modules on using those digital gadgets can be evolved and deployed internationally with the help of the applicable ECE Working Parties (WP.30, SC.1, SC.2, WP.24 etc.). Here it have to be referred to that an eLearning module on deployment of the eTIR global gadget is being advanced with the help of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).

At the level of continuous nearby and inter-nearby/ inter-governmental speak/ facts change:

• In accordance with the tasking of the UNECE ITC at its eighty-1/3 consultation, retain the company of multisectoral meetings as necessary (involving also the maritime and aviation sectors, which include through the specialised agencies IMO and ICAO) to share revel in, and often evaluate and talk cooperation throughout modes to save you worldwide spread of communicable sicknesses through shipping in the future and beautify nearby and inter-nearby coordination to facilitate bordercrossings. This may want to as properly be an agenda object as part of present ECE intergovernmental systems.

• Build on and similarly make stronger the Transport, Health and Environment Pan-European Programme (THE PEP) initiative, jointly led with the aid of UNECE and WHO Europe which in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic has installed a Task Force composed of representatives of member States, global corporations, civil society, academia and other stakeholders. The initiative pursuits at growing ideas for environmentally sound and healthful transport structures primarily based on sustainability and resilience and could explore long-term and strategic adjustments for the world.

• Following the latest ebook of a UNECE e-book on “Intermodal Transport in the Age of COVID-19 – Practices, Initiatives and Responses, Building Pandemic Resilient Transport Systems”, the development of further resource materials accumulating reviews from transport government inside the ECE place and beyond in responding to the COVID-19 disaster is being considered.

Acknowledgements
This paper is a fabricated from work of the UNECE Sustainable Transport Division. Invaluable inputs to the elaboration of this guide were supplied via the secretaries of the subsequent Working Parties below Inland Transport Committee (ITC) auspices: the Working Party on Road Transport (SC.1); the Working Party on Rail Transport (SC.2), the Working Party on Inland Water Transport (SC.Three); the Working Party on Transport Trends and Economics (WP.Five); the Working Party on Transport Statistics (WP.6); the Working Party on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (WP.15); the Working Party on Intermodal Transport and Logistics (WP.24) and the Working Party on Customs Questions Affecting Transport (WP.30).

Notes

References

Initiative on Transport Prospects and Opportunities in the Post-COVID Era: The AMU Region
Infrastructure Directorate of the General Secretariat of the Arab Maghreb Union

Introduction
Since the outset, the goal of the Arab Maghreb Union has been to step by step paintings towards the free motion of people and items among the Maghreb nations and unify law in financial matters with a purpose to reaching financial integration.

The favored Maghreb integration cannot be successful without superior infrastructure. The AMU countries have invested closely in multimodal, road, rail and air shipping infrastructure and applied some distance-reaching regulatory reforms to facilitate non-public quarter involvement and encourage funding.

Since its advent, the General Secretariat of the Arab Maghreb Union has made large efforts toward promoting local cooperation within the subject of infrastructure, mainly throughout the one of a kind shipping modes, by using carrying out feasibility research and drawing up regional agreements within the subject of land, rail, maritime and air transport so one can reaching intraMaghreb connectivity.

Despite its late arrival in Africa, specifically North Africa, COVID-19 is hastily spreading and ensuing in an unheard of worldwide monetary recession and big social deprivation.

The Maghreb international locations reacted speedy to their first COVID-19 cases. The measures taken have helped restriction the impact of the ailment and the AMU countries at the moment are dealing with the monetary and social consequences of this fitness disaster.

Measures Taken with the aid of the AMU Countries
The Maghreb governments reacted quickly to incorporate the spread of the epidemic by means of taking suitable measures within the various areas because the pandemic evolved. These blanketed:

• Closure of colleges and universities

• Cancellation of air and sea links

• Closure of borders

• Cancellation of carrying events

• Closure of restaurants, cafés and night golf equipment

• Implementation of lockdown measures

• Social distancing on public transport and locking

• Mobilization of public administrations

Social and Economic Consequences
This pandemic has had profound social and monetary consequences for the international locations of the AMU, as in all nations around the arena. The measures to combat COVID-19 have had critical financial and social repercussions and compounded the difficulties faced through terrible and susceptible communities, but the scenario is less tragic than in the West.

The World Bank has predicted that Africa will go through its first recession in 25 years. The continent’s economic system is predicted to agreement through between 2.1% and five.1% in 2020, as compared to 2.Four% increase experienced in 2019. The toughest hit sectors are air, sea and street transport, freight transport and logistics, tourism, oil and gasoline, and wholesale and retail trade. COVID-19 has became the shipping zone the wrong way up, from aviation and logistics to public shipping.

The Transport Sector in AMU Countries: PostCOVID-19 Challenges
Transport plays a key role inside the Maghreb countries and every us of a’s transport quarter is characterized by using the implementation of delivery financial restructuring, most important reforms designed to demonopolize and liberalize shipping activities, a dedication to the improvement of worldwide delivery, and the status quo of equipment, mechanisms and processes to facilitate the movement of goods and people.

Aviation Sector
• The vital importance of air shipping in conducting diplomacy and enterprise, the growth of the economy and the development of exchange have thrust this region into the highlight. Although this isn’t the first crisis experienced by way of the aviation sector, it has undoubtedly induced the maximum harm in a relatively short period of time.

• The aviation industry supports more than 6.2 million jobs in Africa and debts for 2.6% of the continent’s GDP, or nearly 56 billion greenbacks, according to a announcement from IATA, AFRAA, UNWTO, the World Travel and Tourism Council and the Airlines Association of Southern Africa (AASA). This statement also applies to the Arab Maghreb countries, where employees have been dismissed at sure agencies and there was a drastic reduction in flights.

• Onthefinancialside,anoveralldecline of 287 billion euros in airline turnover as compared to 2019 has been announced (in keeping with the same supply).

• In general, airways round the arena have handiest about 3 months of coins liquidity. However, this rule does not practice to Africa, wherein most agencies have just a few weeks’ really worth of liquidity. The liquidity disaster has therefore grow to be a actual issue that would push many African airways into financial ruin.

• The 10 largest African airways include 3 Maghreb companies (Royal Maroc, Air Algérie and Tunisair) and, in keeping with a observe by using the International Air Transport Association (IATA), the drastic reduction in traffic has grounded among eighty% and 90% of the worldwide plane fleet. The outcomes for the AMU nations might be as follows:

Algeria

The suspension of flights because of COVID-19 ought to value the Algerian economic system 3.1 billion dollars, while air passenger site visitors is predicted to fall by means of around eight million passengers.

The reduction in the number of passengers will bring about revenue losses for Algeria of around 800 million dollars and could threaten 161,800 jobs.

Morocco

The suspension of flights will price the Moroccan economic system four.9 billion dollars. Air passenger visitors will see about 11 million fewer passengers.

The reduction in the quantity of passengers will bring about sales losses of around 1.7 billion bucks and will threaten 499,000 jobs.

Tunisia

The suspension of flights will price the Tunisian financial system 1.2 billion bucks. Air passenger visitors will see about three million fewer passengers.

The reduction in the range of passengers will bring about sales losses of round six hundred million greenbacks and will threaten 92,000 jobs.

Recommendations for the Aviation Sector
• Restore passenger self belief: in a survey performed by means of IATA, feelings of fear and uncertainty, psychological pressure and the drastic measures proposed with the aid of distinctive international locations for activities to renew have been all noted by using travellers as reasons for his or her loss of self assurance. The have a look at, performed in 11 international locations around the world, showed that handiest 14% of passengers could be inclined to board a aircraft once regulations are lifted. In addition, forty six% could choose to wait one or two months, at the same time as 40% would wait six months or longer.

• Ensure political commitment to support the civil aviation enterprise and take suitable movement.

• Standardize all initiatives proposed for the African civil aviation industry.

• Develop a comprehensive, unified response method that takes account of the pursuits of all stakeholders inside the African civil aviation industry.

• Create regional budget, which include an African commonplace fund managed via African heads of kingdom and governments, to cope with the effect of COVID-19 at the African civil aviation region.

• Use all available investment sources to support the African aviation enterprise.

• Implement measures to permit airports and air navigation provider companies to renew operations.

• Ensure multilateral cooperation at nearby and continental level.

Public Transport (Road and Rail)
• Formal and casual public transport sectors in Maghreb cities have been
hit tough, as lockdown and prevention measures have had a chief impact on people’s mobility.

• All cities have skilled a reduction in public transport, which has constrained call for, reduced the supply of public shipping and, to a point, favoured non-motorized transport.

• The sustainable future of cities is under hazard from the upward thrust within the variety of private vehicles, which is predicted to have a widespread impact on congestion, emissions and social exclusion.

• The formal and casual public transport sectors are dealing with intense economic difficulties because of the reduction in call for for transport and services. Most formal and casual operators are at the verge of bankruptcy. They have suffered a sharp drop in revenue from fares due to social distancing measures, reduced economic activity and those’s chance-averse mind-set towards public transport, all of that have undermined their potential to recover running expenses.

• To make amends for public delivery revenue losses, a few cities have negotiated an growth in fares, which has an effect on users.

Recommendations for the Public Sector
• Provide the public delivery sector in cities with rapid, comprehensive guide to (i) save you huge task losses, (ii) prevent disruption to public services that could growth the social exclusion of inclined populations, and (iii) avoid hampering the efficiency of cities.

• Define sustainable investment schemes to atone for sales losses from social distancing and new mobility protocols while warding off longterm fare increases, specifically by using analyzing the opportunity of allocating price range to assist city delivery operations.

• Consolidate, formalize and structure the casual zone so one can increasing its resilience.

• Improve governance, funding and ability constructing through (i) strengthening land use management and delivery planning in towns, and (ii) designing funding mechanisms to make sure the lengthy-term economic viability of urban shipping operations and guarantee that they are inexpensive for users, especially the most inclined agencies.

• Support a modal shift from personal motors to excessive-capability transport systems, mostly with the aid of making plans an included multimodal transport machine with adaptable and resilient modes of transport.

Cross-Border Trade
• Disruptions to cross-border exchange, particularly elements inclusive of the slowdown in call for, the drop in commodity expenses, supply chain bottlenecks, rising freight prices and export bans, have possibly played a function in the downturn in alternate in North Africa.

• Most governments are seeking to strike a stability between proscribing the long-term unfold of the virus and facilitating emergency and important alternate. COVID-19 might be round for a while, and governments can be required to adapt and innovate to facilitate new, “safer” means of carrying out cross-border exchange.

Maritime Transport
Maritime transport, which performs an critical role in globalization and is responsible for shifting more than eighty% of the arena’s uncooked materials and goods, is
struggling the outcomes of the pandemic due to each the monetary slowdown and the lockdown measures imposed through most countries.

The measures taken in some countries require ships to go through a 14-day quarantine earlier than being allowed to dock, while other ports have virtually closed down. Crew adjustments have additionally been banned, which has positioned personnel in a very tough state of affairs. Meanwhile, passenger delivery has virtually stopped in many places.

This decline in interest has delivered ship orders from shipowners to a halt and reduced shipyard interest.

On 19 March, Kitack Lim, SecretaryGeneral of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), alerted governments to the risks associated with the decline in transport: “In these hard times, the ability for transport services and seafarers to deliver vital goods, together with clinical resources and food, is relevant to responding to, and finally overcoming, this pandemic (…) I urge a practical and pragmatic technique, in these unusual instances, to issues like crew changeovers, resupply, repairs, survey and certification and licensing of seafarers.”

On 24 March, the International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) despatched an open letter to the governments of the G20 countries calling for expanded protection of the supply chain to allow it to fulfil its critical assignment for human beings and organizations.

On 25 March, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) also referred to as for supply chains and maritime visitors, including to landlocked nations, to be kept open and guarded, for the reason that worldwide maritime delivery industry is crucial for people all through these instances of crisis. It additionally referred to as for ports to just accept group adjustments, as around 100,000 team individuals round the sector want to exchange shift each month.

On 26 March, Ursula von der Leyen, President of the European Commission, stated, “The unfastened movement of products and services is consequently our strongest, and albeit, our best asset to make certain elements can pass in which they are wanted most”.

AMU, Activities and Roles
• Active participation within the PIDA-PAP 2 process (2021-2030): establishment of a listing of precedence tasks.

• Organization of on line seminars.

• Development of a digital policy in the AMU Secretariat to respond to
and cope with the pandemic.

• Monitoring of the epidemiological scenario of the pandemic in AMU countries through statistics and analyses of its evolution and the sharing
of facts with member states.

Responding to the COVID-19 Crisis: Effects of Employment on Infrastructure Development
As inside the relaxation of the sector, the Maghreb countries have been experiencing brilliant instances since the start of 2020 due to the unfold of COVID-19, and nobody knows how long the scenario will remaining.
Some key sectors are already experiencing a sharp slowdown because of the pandemic. Tourism, air delivery and
the oil region are being at once affected. However, the seen affects are not predicted for numerous months, relying on how long the pandemic lasts.

Estimates by way of the International Labour Organization (ILO) suggest that unemployment will upward thrust drastically. Based on exclusive situations relating to the impact of COVID-19 on worldwide GDP increase, initial ILO estimates display a upward thrust in international unemployment ranging from 5.Three million (great-case scenario) to 24.7 million (worst-case situation) from a baseline of 188 million in 2019. The medium-case state of affairs shows an boom of 13 million (7.4 million in excessive-profits countries).

While these estimates are highly unsure, all figures factor to a significant rise in worldwide unemployment. By evaluation, the worldwide financial disaster of 2008-2009 prompted unemployment to upward thrust by way of 22 million.

The impact on employment will result in foremost income losses for workers. Overall paintings income losses are anticipated to be among 860 billion and three.Forty four trillion bucks globally. The loss of work income will translate into less intake of products and services, so as to have a negative impact at the sustainability of agencies and the resilience of economies.

Emergency Preparedness
The term “preparedness” can be defined as the understanding and potential of governments, reaction corporations, groups and individuals to anticipate the prevalence of many one-of-a-kind possibly, approaching or modern disasters, and to respond to them and get better correctly. Preparedness is the made from a mixture of making plans, aid allocation, schooling, sporting events and enterprise to create, preserve and improve operational skills based totally on threat assessment.

Emergencies call for long-time period funding with out instant consequences. However, the more is spent on practise, the less complicated it will be to reply to emergencies and control their scale.

Infrastructure glaringly heads the listing in terms of essential measures in emergency preparedness plans. Without roads and railways connecting special components of the u . S ., it would be very tough to satisfy the population’s medical wishes. And without electricity supply and ICTs, it might be not possible to contact people and alert them to danger.

Importance of Infrastructure
Infrastructure performs a important position in development. In transportation structures, power production vegetation, ICTs, and water and sanitation structures, the offerings that permit society to feature and the financial system to thrive are provided thru infrastructure. For that reason, they’re at the center of efforts to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. Whether they challenge health, schooling, hygiene or different sectors, most of the Sustainable Development Goals contain enhancements in infrastructure, which performs a essential role in each of the three dimensions of sustainable development: the economic system, the surroundings and society.

Infrastructure need to not be considered as a hard and fast of man or woman sources, inclusive of a energy plant, health center or water supply network, but alternatively as exceptional components that make up a machine and work collectively to offer sizeable capacity to bolster the three pillars of the Sustainable Development Goals referred to above.

Infrastructure must be seen not as a purpose in itself, however alternatively as a method of handing over critical offerings. As pointed out with the aid of Jo da Silva, founder and director of global improvement at engineering consultancy Arup, “We need to make a shift to considering infrastructure as what it does – protects, connects or affords crucial offerings – now not what it is. It is infrastructure this is brokering our capability to manipulate finite resources and get those resources to in which there are human needs.”

Chapter three: Road Transport
Road transport performed an critical function during the emergence and enlargement of COVID-19, ensuring the supply of vital goods. Some measures were adopted to address unexpected and impossible conditions before the pandemic, which includes the closure of borders. However, worldwide associations concerned within the zone are calling for lessons to be found out from what came about, so one can face destiny disruptions with more worldwide coordination and extra forceful measures to guide the sector. These measures ought to help to boom its resilience.

Digitisation is anticipated to be one of the bases of this future resilience, as an unavoidable tool for gaining safety, efficiency, and modal integration. So far, some steps have already been taken, but with out achieving sizeable use. It stays to be visible whether COVID-19 provides the important impetus to consolidate and increase its implementation and use. Nonetheless, the effectiveness of digitalisation, specially, and of avenue shipping in fashionable, requires the existence of across the world harmonised rules and standards that do not act as obstacles to transport and exchange.

COVID-19: KEY Lessons for the Road and Transport Community
Patrick Malléjacq, Secretary General of Secretary General of the World Road Association (PIARC)

José Manuel Blanco Segarra, Secretary of PIARC Technical Committee 1.1 Performance of Transport Administrations

This textual content is based on an earlier article posted in PIARC’s Routes/Roads magazine and on PIARC COVID Response Team’s complete Technical Report.

Introduction
The COVID-19 pandemic is a worldwide fitness and societal emergency that required on the spot and powerful motion in a couple of dimensions. In this context, avenue shipping, that’s an critical provider important to preserving the movement of key employees, items, materials and services, has to stay operational. Effective disaster control requires cooperation and coordination amongst several stakeholders, such as authorities decisionmakers, road proprietors and operators, public transport, logistics and mobility vendors, and emergency services, at the same time as keeping the issues and protection of employees and street customers and clients at the leading edge.

PIARC (World Road Association) moved fast to establish a proper COVID-19 Response Team (CRT) tasked with setting up the rapid sharing of understanding and practices among its individuals at the impacts of, and responses to, the pandemic and the associated monetary and social crisis. As early as March 2020, the PIARC COVID-19 Response Team prepared a sequence of webinars for practitioners and experts to proportion their experience, understanding, and some of the most effective responses which can be emerging. It is identified that, whilst present day practices are not but completely tested, and what works in a few parts of the arena might not be relevant globally, these shared experiences can be precious equipment at some point of disaster control, wherein an excellent idea now ought to keep lives, improve enterprise resilience and minimize service disruption each now and inside the future.

This article gives a number of the important thing observations and learnings from those webinars. They are certain in a Technical Report which PIARC published in December 2020, to be had as a free virtual down load to all.

PIARC COVID-19 Webinars
A total of 23 worldwide webinars were held among 25 March and 29 July 2020, in English, in French and in Spanish. They supplied an overview of the modern-day situation with COVID-19 in extraordinary countries; the problems confronted by means of road operators and administrations; quality practices from relevant PIARC reviews; rising making plans, operational and customer support responses.

These webinars blanketed displays from about one hundred speakers from all components of the world and touched on all areas of relevance for road operators and administrations.

Figure 1. Summary of PIARC COVID-19 Webinar Activities

Figure 2. Other Bodies Involved in PIARC COVID-19 webinars

A devoted place of PIARC’s website has been created with copies of all the movies and presentation slides from all of the webinars. This precious statistics is available to everyone, free of charge, in French, English and Spanish. In addition, Bulletins summarizing the findings from the webinars have been published and are to be had in PIARC digital library, and an in depth Technical Report become published in December.

Impact of COVID-19 on Roads and Road Transport
The contemporary international COVID-19 pandemic has struck the whole international in 2020 and is having more than one and acute affects over and above a traditional catastrophe. As of early October 2020, the variety of worldwide cases exceeded 36.2 million with over 1.05 million deaths. This disaster is as a great deal an economic fall apart and a social catastrophe as it is a public health emergency, which has introduced with it a dramatic slowdown in commercial enterprise hobby, the standstill of international travel and large increases in activity furloughs and lay-offs. Global GDP through the end of 2021 is predicted to be 6.Five% below pre-COVID-19 tiers and the time horizon for complete restoration of a few sectors is 2022-2024.

Policy dreams around COVID-19 have developed over the yr 2020 in many countries. First half of of the year turned into marked by using what the IMF has referred to as “The Great Lockdown”, a large and extreme slowing in monetary and social activity, and restrictions on private mobility and tour to such an extent that during April half the World’s population were requested or ordered to stay at home. Containing the infection stays a mission and is vitally important. Decision makers also are trying or have attempted to re-open economies, lifting or replacing countrywide lockdowns with localized measures. The project is to assure the fitness and safety of workers and clients, at the same time as restoring commercial enterprise and consumer self belief and imparting the right monetary and fiscal stimulus.

To assist within the analysis of this process, PIARC’s COVID-19 Response Team had diagnosed three levels that might comply with the first lockdown:

Reopening, with dangers carefully controlled until vaccine and extra powerful therapeutic remedies are to be had. Partial or complete short-term or localized lockdowns in many nations are still going on; life is not going to get back to “everyday” in the immediate and near-time period destiny.
Recovery of countrywide and neighborhood economies. Expected to increase well beyond 2021, this may contain expanded infrastructure shipping, technology research and other gear of economic stimulus and business method.
Reimagining on how shipping machine will meet destiny desires, reflecting the impacts, demanding situations and opportunities of COVID-19 and other agendas; transforming and futureproofing delivery infrastructure and offerings in the direction of 2025 and past. This section has already commenced.
Experience has shown that those levels can actually appear concurrently, now not one after the alternative, but they continue to be a terrific framework for analysing priorities and options. Indeed, the pandemic remains raging in many elements of the world. Public guidelines keep to adapt about COVID-19 containment and about fostering restoration. Last however now not least, the attitude of powerful vaccines is a strong hope sign for the yr 2021.

Strengths and Resilience of the Road Sector
Roads have remained open throughout the pandemic. Road shipping has been capable of maintain connectivity and to provide a lifeline to even the maximum remote places. This is real of passenger visitors in addition to of freight visitors. This, in itself, is a primary achievement for road administrations and operators.

Road operators have been impacted in all components of their work. The discern below suggests the most famous impacts on street delivery and the perspective of street operators:

Figure three. Impact of COVID-19 on Road Network Operators
Road networks are a essential component to the powerful strolling of the economy and the pandemic has highlighted the strategic and vital cost of road shipping for social and monetary survival and the unavoidable need to shield roads and their management to make certain mobility. PIARC’s collection of webinars has made it feasible to become aware of a number of excellent and remarkable practices that have been applied by using exceptional jurisdictions across the world.

The measures to save you ailment transmission have had huge effect on road and shipping management and additionally on the deliver chain. Comparing pandemics and different hazards, the surroundings in which commercial enterprise continuity management is performed is quite extraordinary due to the fact the assignment whilst pandemics is to retain street and transport management activities correctly with confined and constrained human and fabric resources even as taking measures to address infectious sicknesses. And it should be stated that the incidence of pandemics and different kinds of disaster may also overlap. So, as CRT document has said “inside the post-COVID-19 technology, it’ll be more important than ever to address the resilience of roads, transport and avenue associated functions.” The following units this out in greater element: Developing a disaster-resistant street community (tunnels, bridges, embankments, and so forth.), securing street infrastructure in times of disaster, preserving inspection and analysis of roads with suitable size and monitoring procedures and technologies, sharing information dynamically (the massive enlargement of records base, statistics analytics and processing capability, consisting of through social media gives a primary supply of information which can be exploited), and sharing reviews to create guidelines, methods and first-rate practices and to put together mixed disaster situations in terms of commercial enterprise continuity operations.

The topic of resilience has been protected throughout the PIARC COVID-19 webinars within the context of:

Continuity of construction and maintenance work;
Actions to address pandemic from a resilience perspective centered on shipping corridors, delivery regulations & closed municipalities, plus actions in Freight Transport, Public Transport, Toll Highways, National/ Federal Road Network, Intercity Passenger Transport and continuity of Telecommunication and broadcasting services;
General influences and strategies, avenue community operations, freight and logistics, creation works and financial impacts and destiny resilience making plans;
Longer-term implications past the on the spot disaster below behavioural trade, commercial enterprise resilience plan.
Additionally, in July 2020, participants of PIARC TC 1.4 “Climate Change and Resilience of Road Networks” and the PIARC CRT published an editorial with The Resilience Shift titled “A pivotal second for the transport quarter – and training for resilience”.

As illustrated inside the Figure below, there’s a need to integrate classes discovered from a resilience perspective. Future pandemics and some other new and unconceivable threat will (and should) discover road and shipping administrations better prepared, constructing up flexibility and capability to apprehend and select the maximum sustainable measures.
The practices shared are very relevant seeing that we are nevertheless obliged to adapt to the brand new situations so long as the cutting-edge destabilising fact that is affecting the personal, social, running and financial lives of workers, people, groups, companies, administrations and nations keeps.

Road and delivery companies have proven their pace of response and adaptableness to soundly preserve each day activity in offices, avenue inspection, avenue preservation (by means of their personal manner, reduced in size or concession), maintain to control road movements and mitigate as some distance as feasible impacts at the supply chain and productivity, all at the same time as collaborating with many different organizations and stakeholders.

Road zone employees have persisted their duties below situations of acute professional and private disruption and followed, inside the non-public region, by using widespread pressure, worker furlough and lay-offs. The affects on the non-public and expert lives of many operating in the area had been unprecedent: it’s far requiring to installation new roles, to find workarounds to issues and innovate in a way to hold to get the task carried out. Road people deserve public popularity and appreciation, and there are instructions to be drawn from this pliability.

Key Conclusions and Recommendations Areas
For roads and avenue transport, COVID19 has presented particular demanding situations: How should roads and road transport assist to overcome the pandemics? How can roads and street delivery assist to combat the monetary disaster and move in the direction of a “new regular?”

How need to long term guidelines and initiative in roads and road transportation be adapted to address the new realities and the challenges offered through COVID-19?” (Oscar de Buen, Past President of PIARC, 29th July 2020 Seminar) PIARC’s distinct Report is primarily based on the extensive programme of webinars. It offers conclusions and tips for all street operators and administrations; most of them are applicable for all countries.

Declaration of Emergency

Mandate government with appropriate emergency powers
Be prepared to difficulty interpretative orders and instructions to ensure the availability of critical or important services for the safety of human beings, property and places, and hold hobby in key (important) financial sectors
Economic Measures to Support Businesses

Establish guidelines for contracts, mainly for PPPs
Plan to keep road-related pastime and enterprise continuity
Mitigate the economic and monetary effects of reduction in visitors
Road Works

Be alert and agile
In certain instances, boost up some preservation works to take benefit of low site visitors volumes, with operations adjusted consistent with the traffic lower
Secure get admission to to ok assets to make certain that work may be endured
Investigate the feasibility of strategic stockpiles of cloth that might end up in short deliver within the event of world disruption of deliver chains
Data

Think approximately information as some thing of excellent price for street shipping agencies
Recognise that real time information is wanted to meet the wishes of customers and operators
Evaluate the strength of partnership for information series and control to power innovation via avenue delivery
Security

Recognise that physical security and cyber-security are crucial for the utility of the standards associated with resilience: prepare, prevent, defend, respond, get better
Increase the security of I.T. Structures
Disaster Management and Resilience

Address the resilience of roads, shipping, road-associated functions, connections with different modes and connections with other stakeholders as an entire
Develop a disaster-resilient street community, securing avenue infrastructure in instances of disaster
Apply the Preparedness, Response, Recovery, Prevention/Adaptation version
Be prepared to face extra screw ups while going through an epidemic
Passenger and Public Transport

Restore citizen’s self assurance in collective (mass) public transport
Analyse how the city landscape shifts
Look into how we will build flexibility in the infrastructure that we build to allow for the converting and uncertain mobility dynamics and expectancies that our patron base is going through.
Analyse how ITS can assist public transit offer greater reliable service
Freight and Logistics

Establish suggestions/agreements on country wide/international degree to preserve freight transferring all through pandemics hold key street networks and centers open and operational
Prepare and put into effect amendments to the law/policies to have greater flexibility regarding exemptions at some point of pandemics or different disruptions.
Support the digital transition for ITS solutions in logistics and freight shipping to lessen physical managing and manipulate strategies and to minimize obstructions on site visitors flows
Prioritize investments for key freight corridors for economic restoration and good framework situations for lengthy distance road freight shipping
Intelligent Transport Systems

Focus on integration and management of the street network with an quit-to-stop and user-focused method
Consider low-cost ITS solutions as a valid option for avenue community operations, for all countries and for large and small jurisdictions. ITS does not must be costly to be effective.
Even in ITS: Do no longer reinvent the wheel, and as a substitute intention to advantage from others’ studies and knowledge
Road Safety

Recognize the chance situations created by way of the disaster
Identify local or community-wide measures for potential avenue safety upgrades
Educate and tell
Winter Service

Implement heightened precautionary measures to defend employees
Learn from every other and appoint techniques used by Southern Hemisphere corporations at some point of the first wave of the pandemic
Workforce

Celebrate road employees
Apply health and safety protocols like
all companies
Design work-from-domestic strategies with care
Apply success factors that enable
ladies to retain to thrive at paintings
Use technology wisely
A collection of implementation movements also are presented for the road network:

Monitor the New Transport Normal

What is call for for transport going to appear to be to any extent further, consisting of the work from home?
How are we able to build some uncertainty into our models and tactics?
Pay even more attention to the desires of the customers to be greater “patron – centric”
Do not lose awareness of society’s preCOVID expectations concerning GHG emissions, cost-performance, resilience, and carrier tiers… They are still applicable
Contribute to Economic Recovery

Recognise that roads are key for economies and societies (they stayed open during the crisis; avenue freight labored)
Include investments in avenue infrastructure or street transport in country wide COVID-associated financial recuperation plans
Fill Gaps in Evidence / Evaluate

Evaluate all measures that have been applied in a rush at some point of the crisis
Identify actual user needs and policy demands; i.E., what is the “new everyday”
Share Knowledge

Promote the use of all available knowledge
Engage with LMICs especially
Continue providing a networking device for humans to attach
Analyze the PIARC survey, renew it while appropriate
Final Remarks
The pandemic continues to be ongoing; therefore impacts are not yet whole throughout the whole cycle and public coverage objectives maintain to evolve in containing the virus and fostering healing whilst in the roads and transport zone a extensive range of responses were followed with various levels of utility and fulfillment however there has not been already determined what constitutes exceptional practice and under what instances.

In many elements of the sector, relaunching the economic system is now a high priority at the political agenda. Roads and street production are preferably located to play a main function in investment plans, no longer best because the arena is critical to the social and monetary cloth of society, but also due to the fact avenue production is a purveyor of jobs that may help deal with the unemployment juggernaut.

Figure five. Mobility Patterns as a Result of COVID-19

Looking ahead, there is an possibility to re-consider the put up-COVID global. This consists of accelerating key trends, along with digitisation, on line services, and automation, in addition to renewed dedication to tackling urgent pre-pandemic demanding situations, consisting of congestion, pollution, and climate change, with new resolve. This way reconfiguring road and transport structures and services to pressure a higher, greener healing which supports more sustainable, resilient, and happier communities. As we head into 2021, we need to appearance past nowadays’s trials and tribulations, and awareness on getting ready properly to build the economic system and society of the following day.

These issues, and how they may be treated across the globe, became the subject of the first PIARC webinar of the new season, which happened on 30 September, in Spanish. Following its initial sports, PIARC is now continuing to organize further webinars, bringing in new nations, groups and consciousness regions. It is also supposed that PIARC’s extra than twenty Technical Committee and Task Forces will choose up on COVID19 troubles applicable to their subjects and features of enquiry as applicable and suitable.

Proof of the significance that PIARC attaches to resilience and to mirror the megatrends which might be impacting the street area, is decided to increase the topics of next winter provider congress, to be held in Calgary (Canada), to consist of resilience so it will likely be the XVI th World Winter Service and Road Resilience Congress.

References

Perspectives from Road Transport on the Opportunities and Challenges of the Pandemic
Jens Hügel, Senior Adviser, World Road Transport Organisation (IRU)

As the world avenue shipping organization, IRU (World Road Transport Organisation) represents more than three.Five million avenue delivery operators around the globe. As the lifeblood of global exchange, road shipping is the essential hyperlink to unlocking worldwide prosperity. With this in mind, we use information from our devoted marketplace intelligence team to tell our advocacy paintings, making the voice of the enterprise heard so it could play its vital role in global supply chains.

Trade facilitation is at the core of our work. Under a United Nations mandate, IRU manages TIR, the best international transit gadget and an critical exchange facilitation device. Governed by the TIR Convention and operational in 60 nations, TIR presents customs ensures, allowing items to glide without difficulty, securely and reliably throughout borders. The digital version of the device, eTIR, is completely paperless, making it even greater streamlined and at ease.

COVID-19 and the Road Transport Sector
IRU has a worldwide network of participants in the road transport zone, with whom we had been in close touch at some stage in the pandemic to build a image of its financial and operational impact. We can verify that the worldwide economic slowdown because of the pandemic has substantially affected the street transport industry. In addition, the shipping restrictions installed vicinity with the aid of governments to govern the unfold of the virus have disrupted mobility networks and deliver chains. According to IRU studies, worldwide items delivery losses are expected to exceed USD 679 billion in 2020, a turnover loss of 18% in comparison to 2019. [1]

Commercial street shipping operators have maintained offerings where feasible, notwithstanding an regularly better price base due to shipping, routing and transport regulations. Many street transport corporations have controlled to live on to date, however anecdotal proof from IRU individuals and studies from our marketplace intelligence group indicates that they will not live on much longer with out financial help. Following this concerning discovery, IRU assessed two key units of financial indicators that offer an early caution at the risk of enterprise default and insolvency. Both factor to an approaching wave of bankruptcies in the street shipping zone over the approaching 12 months, [2] which might have a devastating impact on international supply chains and exchange networks. Road transport operators in all areas, including the Western Mediterranean, are dealing with a high or very excessive chance of defaulting on loans. This could lead to a deterioration in their creditworthiness, which in turn would increase their cost of borrowing, especially for motors.

In spite of a bleak outlook for road shipping businesses, governments have did not act. While many administrations have applied guide measures for organizations, IRU evaluation of presidency measures in seventy nine nations, which include France, Italy, Malta, Morocco, Portugal, Spain and Tunisia, found out that very few transport operators benefitted. This loss of movement indicates the volume to which the significance of the road shipping area is underestimated. However, without it we’d now not have the vital items and services we want to live on. Over eighty% of industrial land delivery of mobility and logistics offerings (in tonne-kilometres and passenger-kilometres) are provided by way of the road transport enterprise.

During the pandemic, the street transport enterprise performed a key function, turning in medical and different important substances all through the Western Mediterranean and round the arena. Drivers placed themselves at threat to preserve items shifting and serve their groups beneath more and more tough situations. Restrictions and reduced demand have led to a critical liquidity disaster in avenue delivery. Operators desperately need centered monetary and non-financial support measures from governments if they’re to live on. Such measures include direct coins presents, reductions in taxes and prices, extensions on loan payments, guide for unemployed people and extra flexibility on the interpretation of riding regulations and restrictions. It is essential that governments put into effect these measures to save you mass bankruptcies and job losses.

Global economic and social recuperation from the pandemic is dependent on a properly-functioning avenue transport zone, which in turn depends on tens of millions of road delivery operators staying in business and persevering with to run offerings for his or her clients. It is urgent that governments act as a result. If no support is provided to the street delivery area, mass insolvency of road delivery businesses is inevitable. As a end result, the global recession will be extra devastating and longer than currently expected, humans and important items will no longer be transported to where and when they may be wanted and monetary improvement and recovery will come to a standstill.

Opportunities for a extra virtual sector
While the general impact of COVID-19 is undeniably poor, the reaction to the pandemic affords governments and the delivery enterprise inside the Western Mediterranean with an wonderful possibility to improve shipping networks and fortify logistics chains. The disaster found out the shortcomings in regional supply networks and highlighted the necessity of powerful hazard control. Flexibility, adaptability and the use of digital equipment will be key to live to tell the tale and continue to be aggressive in a post-pandemic buying and selling surroundings. Fundamental modifications to business approaches are encouraging virtual innovation, as a cost chain based on digital solutions is extra dependable and able to mitigate all styles of chance. It is therefore the perfect moment for governments to put in force paperless and simplified techniques for road shipping operations.

IRU’s eTIR gadget and e-CMR virtual consignment word are two equipment which have acquired massive popularity for his or her capacity to support economies thru recuperation from the COVID-19 crisis. In April, the United Nations Secretary-General stated that, “modern gear such as UN eTIR/e-CMR structures and different tools that permit to exchange electronic records without physical touch and facilitate the waft of products across borders ought to be used”. [3] A few months later, the heads of 8 United Nations specialized corporations, including the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), released a joint declaration wherein they affirmed that “a safe and efficient intermodal delivery gadget is facilitated by means of using United Nations devices, along with the United Nations TIR Convention and its eTIR device […]. These units allow for transferring shipment across borders with out requiring physical exams and for reducing touch between people”. [4]

Paperless structures have apparent quick term public health advantages in terms of decreasing human touch and stopping the spread of the virus, however digitalisation also contains economic benefits and more than a few related possibilities to facilitate intermodal transit and alternate. Logistics operators are struggling financially and streamlining customs methods with equipment such as eTIR will lessen transport instances, reducing costs and helping them to control the commercial enterprise impact of the pandemic. ETIR may be used for intermodal transport operations between Europe and North Africa, so long as at the least one leg of the itinerary is finished through street. This flexibility makes it a very useful change facilitation device and ideal to be used within the Western Mediterranean location.

Another digital tool to be leveraged to boost alternate throughout and following the pandemic is the e-CMR virtual consignment be aware. Rules for transporting goods across the world are included by means of the United Nations Convention for the carriage of goods, referred to as the CMR. This Convention has been ratified by way of maximum European states, in addition to several different international locations, which includes Morocco and Tunisia. Goods businesses, drivers and people receiving shipments use a CMR consignment note, which presents statistics approximately the shipped items and the transporting and receiving parties. Until recently, CMR notes were best in paper form, but an digital format has been in improvement given that 2008. Western Mediterranean international locations have spearheaded using e-CMR electronic consignment notes, with the primary cargo using e-CMR taking location in January 2017 between Spain and France. In its paper-based totally format, the CMR consignment be aware brings many advantages: it harmonises contractual situations for goods transported by using road and helps facilitate items delivery overall. A wider implementation of the e-CMR answer could modernise the device, maintaining its benefits at the same time as doing away with office work and the associated charges. It would also permit for faster invoicing and a discount in shipping and reception discrepancies, as data is available to all events in real time. Its virtual nature way that eCMR can be without difficulty integrated with other services used by delivery companies, inclusive of customs assertion or shipping and fleet management services. By shifting to an digital format, the three events involved in every cargo advantage from better standard logistics efficiency, resulting in multiplied economic competitiveness.

Transport digitalisation has been excessive on agendas for a while, and even earlier than the pandemic it changed into progressing gradually. In February 2008, a protocol turned into introduced to the CMR Convention introducing the electronic management of CMR thru e-CMR. This protocol entered into force on 5 June 2011, and to this point 17 international locations have acceded. In February of this 12 months, a landmark become reached when signatories of the TIR Convention unanimously followed the brand new felony framework that will electricity the destiny of TIR and its fully digital eTIR machine. ETIR will update the paper TIR carnet, which serves as a customs assure and accompanies a cargo for the duration of its itinerary. With eTIR, customs officers receive shipment facts electronically before the cargo arrives, making tactics extra green and relaxed. The adoption of the criminal framework for eTIR proven the backing through governments and enterprise leaders of TIR as the only international transit gadget and a valuable and competitive tool to facilitate change international. It additionally represented a superb step in the direction of trade facilitation and improved transit safety. With the international felony frameworks in region, those gear are ready to be implemented inside the Western Mediterranean, which might carry good sized benefits to move operators and different stakeholders within the supply chain.

For transport operators, the monetary guarantees provided through TIR assist to lessen the economic commitments and risks associated with customs tax and obligations. Digitalisation and the shift to eTIR will similarly lessen those dangers, because it gives a robust and at ease communication platform for all events involved in TIR delivery. The full lifestyles cycle of a TIR assure, from its issuance through IRU to its termination, can be managed in real time with the use of TIR IT tools. According to Olga Algayerova, the Executive Secretary of UNECE, “The digitalisation of the TIR machine will enhance the velocity, efficiency and transparency of the TIR customs transit system. UNECE, IRU, the TIR Contracting Parties and the private zone all recognise this ability.” [5] TIR is established to reduce adventure times through as much as seventy two% [6] and eTIR is about to lessen them similarly, cutting prices for operators. Shorter transit times and decrease costs will facilitate exchange, assisting to restart the worldwide economy following the pandemic and assisting long-time period financial growth.

In the Western Mediterranean, the intermodal capabilities of TIR make it the right change facilitation tool for operations among Europe and North Africa. Algeria, France, Italy, Malta, Morocco, Portugal, Spain and Tunisia are already TIR operational. Tunisia has joined an upcoming UNECE eTIR pilot assignment, showing determination to modernising its transport structures and an hobby in change digitalisation. TIR is already in use for routes from France and Italy to Turkey, doing away with the want for physical cargo inspections alongside the path.

Multilateral cooperation for greater resilient deliver chains
Another possibility to be grasped for the duration of the pandemic pertains to greater international and move-border coordination. The chaos caused by travel regulations at the begin of the pandemic, and the continuing troubles all through the second one wave, found out a genuine and urgent want for more coordination among governments. For shipping operators, it’s miles currently complicated to comply with the huge variety of restrictions put in vicinity with the aid of one-of-a-kind countries. This slows down the shipping of important items, leading to shortages for groups and economic difficulties for operators, who are unable to work at their regular fee.

IRU recommends Western Mediterranean governments to coordinate the established order of inexperienced lanes for vehicles in any respect borders, subsidized through regulations and tactics that save you additional and systematic stopping of vans. Governments ought to take joint steps to allow for optimum flexibility on the translation of using regulations and restrictions. Measures to lengthen the validity of expired manipulate files, which include visas, certificate and licences could also be coordinated among international locations. Establishing such multilateral cooperation now might have lasting economic advantages and make deliver chains more resilient to future crises.

As shipping digitalisation progresses, cooperation between governments will also be crucial to control efficaciously the big quantity of records produced. There is presently no global or European legal framework particularly for regulating using business-to-enterprise information. Transport operators have no visibility concerning in which their information is saved, how it used and by using whom. Their consequent hesitancy to share information will sluggish down digitalisation, stopping us from reaping its benefits. To establish trust and information fairness, a multilateral prison framework is needed that explicitly consists of the principles of the voluntary sharing of records and reciprocity in statistics access. The duties and responsibilities of facts aggregators should be without a doubt described, along side the rights of facts mills. Transport operators have to be able to ask for and acquire remuneration for the records they offer. Without coordination between governments, operators and records aggregators will have to work with a patchwork of national guidelines, complicating their paintings with a unfavorable impact on digitalisation efforts.

Looking to the future
The digitalisation of trade and transit networks in the Western Mediterranean cannot be successful without a high degree of cooperation among countries. As supply chains are digitalised and paperless transactions come to be the norm, political engagement and mutual agree with might be critical. Governments have to take a coverage method, imposing quick and lengthy-term measures to assist the development of the shipping region and shield the supply chains upon which economies rely.

We can count on to see the benefits of digitalisation for economies and societies. Processes for the duration of the price chain might be more green, saving each money and time. This will suggest goods arriving where and whilst they’re wished. IRU has been helping digitalisation around the world, with several ongoing tasks on unique continents. We stand equipped to help nations inside the Western Mediterranean to implement the eTIR gadget to facilitate trade in the course of and following the pandemic. However, if governments do now not provide the essential support now, the street transport industry will crumble, getting rid of important links in supply chains.

Notes

References

Importance of Regulatory Convergence in Promoting Cross-Border Transport and International Haulage and Upgrading Road Transport Performance in South Mediterranean Region, Efforts, and Achievements
Michalis P. Adamantiadis, Team Leader & Road Freight Transport Key Expert, EuroMed Transport Support Project (EuroMed TSP)

Introduction
Transport is crucial to lifestyles and of crucial importance for society, making sure ordinary mobility of populations and allowing them to carry out their financial and social activities. Transport is also pivotal for increase and competitiveness of economies allowing economic sports, the manufacturing and distribution of products in addition to alternate. International delivery is of strategic importance playing a crucial function to worldwide alternate, which has a chief impact at the monetary improvement. On the other hand, transport negatively affects people’s protection and health in addition to the surroundings. For those motives, shipping is a strategic duty of Governments, that could play a first-rate position in promoting its efficiency, thru the development of shipping networks and a regulatory framework within which delivery offerings can increase correctly and beneath the fine viable situations of safety and environmental safety.

This article, devoted to avenue transport, draws on the reports from the continuing work below the European Union (EU) funded EuroMed TSP (2017-2022) and previously the EuroMed Road, Rail and Urban Transport (RRU) Project (20122016) (hereafter called EuroMed Projects), highlights the importance of the regulatory convergence in the EuroMed vicinity, being one of the principal components of the Regional Transport Action Plan (RTAP) for the Mediterranean (20142020), along with the status quo of the future Trans-Mediterranean Transport Network (TMN-T). It also provides the selected regulatory frameworks developed below the United Nations (UN) and European Union (EU) auspices that were promoted inside the location and describes the EuroMed partner country efforts and achievements.

Importance of Regulatory Convergence in Promoting Cross-Border Transport and International Haulage and Upgrading road Transport Performance in South Mediterranean Region
Roads are via some distance the most common shipping mode for each passenger and inland freight delivery, being extraordinarily price-efficient. However, so as for the move-border shipping by using road to perform successfully, there may be a want for across the world harmonized standards and guidelines. Heterogeneous shipping policies that modify from one united states of america to every other are actual obstacles to international shipping and alternate.

For more than six many years, UNECE gives a platform for intergovernmental cooperation to facilitate and expand international delivery, at the same time as enhancing its safety and environmental overall performance. The consequences are pondered in fifty eight international legal contraptions. These gadgets, supplemented by means of EU rules, constitute the fine European and international practices. By making use of them, EuroMed partners may also most effective advantage, because they are effective gear not most effective for the facilitation and development of international delivery, however also for upgrading the performance in their country wide inland shipping systems.

At its Action 8 (Efficient Land Transport Systems) and 9 (International Land Transport Haulage), the RTAP 2014-2020, inter alia, advocates for a regulatory convergence promoting go-border shipping and global haulage within the area and encourages EuroMed nations to accede and efficiently put into effect the main UN street delivery agreements and conventions. Moreover, RTAP Action 8 calls accomplice international locations to pursue efforts for enhancing the efficiency of the street shipping zone, and addressing the professionalism of drivers, of operators, the technical kingdom of the automobile fleet and road protection. RTAP Action 9 additionally makes precise reference to the AETR, ADR, ATP, TIR Convention, Harmonization Convention, the 1958 and 1997 Agreements and describes the blessings of Mediterranean companions by turning into contracting parties to them, even as RTAP Action 10 (Road Safety) encourages countries addressing the technical inspections of sure sorts of vehicles and the minimal requirements closer to which the motors are to be tested.

Main UN and EU Road transport applicable Regulatory Frameworks Selected for Promotion within the EuroMed Region, Expected Benefits
Main UN road transport agreements selected
Nine (9) street transport prison instruments wherein decided on by using the worried countries and the EuroMed Projects to recognition their efforts, representing the basic regulatory framework facilitating pass-border street shipping and worldwide haulage, growing street protection, and upgrading street transport overall performance the usage of them as models for countrywide regulations. Here follows a quick training of them.

Road delivery and road safety agreements
The Convention on Road Traffic, of 1968, goals at facilitating global avenue visitors and alternate as well as tourism and increasing avenue safety through the adoption of uniform avenue visitors guidelines on all elements influencing global road traffic and its safety, inclusive of the driver (uniform licences, schooling and trying out, and so forth.) and the automobile. Acceding to this Convention help international locations harmonise their street visitors regulatory framework with that of different eighty four countries worldwide, Contracting Parties to it.

The Convention on Road Signs and Signals, of 1968, establishes a fixed of usually agreed street symptoms and alerts categorized in 3 classes (hazard warning, regulatory and informative), and affords for each of them definitions and bodily look (dimensions, shapes, and colorations, and so on). Acceding to this Convention help countries harmonise their respective regulation and facilitate worldwide street visitors.

The European Agreement concerning the Work of Crews of Vehicles engaged in International Road Transport (AETR), of 1970, ambitions at stopping drivers and crews of industrial vehicles of more than three.Five tonnes, or transporting more than 9 human beings, engaged in worldwide avenue transport, from using excessive hours and defines the manage gadgets (tachographs) which can be used to manipulate the ones periods. AETR Agreement creates a stage gambling field in the road haulage industry, enables prevent street injuries and introduces higher conditions for professional drivers.

Border crossing facilitation
The Customs Convention on the International Transport of Goods beneath Cover of TIR Carnets (TIR Convention), of 1975, units up the international Customs Transit manner that lets in the seamless worldwide shipping of goods by avenue thru as many signing countries with out present process customs tactics or the want to make a financial deposit at every border. The agreement presents a pass-border assure gadget to cowl obligations and taxes for each shipping operation. ETIR released as a challenge in 2003 to fully cozy digital statistics trade among customs administrations, is being developed. The TIR Convention outcomes to a sizeable discount of global delivery costs and allows international delivery of goods.

The International Convention at the Harmonization of Frontier Controls of Goods (Harmonization Convention), of 1982, is a framework Convention that helps international border crossing for transported items via harmonization and discount of administrative formalities, and of the range and period of border controls. Thanks to this one-forestall-keep precept for border controls, international freight operators keep time and money.

Transport of risky goods and perishable foodstuffs
The Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR), of 1957, ambitions at making sure the best possible degree of protection for dangerous items delivery at a suitable cost. It defines which risky materials are eligible for global transport and which aren’t and establishes the situations underneath which they can be carried and presents necessities for shipping operations, driver training as well as car production and approval.

The Agreement at the International Carriage of Perishable Foodstuffs and at the Special Equipment to be Used for such Carriage (ATP), of 1970, establishes uniform prescriptions for the preservation of the nice of perishable foodstuffs for international shipping and defines uniform norms and requirements for the special delivery system required. It additionally sets up uniform distinguishing marks to be affixed to the specially ready cars. The conformity of the gadget is displayed through an worldwide certificate and an ATP plate affixed to the car facilitating shipping by averting repetitive controls.

Vehicle rules
The Agreement regarding the Adoption of Uniform Technical Prescriptions for Wheeled Vehicles, Equipment and Parts which can be fitted and/or be used on Wheeled Vehicles and the Conditions for Reciprocal Recognition of Approvals granted on the idea of these Prescriptions, of 1958, (1958 Agreement), affords the felony framework for the improvement of the safety and emission regulations for all sorts of motor vehicles synthetic in Europe and in many other elements of the world. The prison document accommodates 131 UN Regulations and has contributed extensively to technical progress, extended automobile protection, and considerably reduced automobile emissions.

The Agreement regarding the Adoption of Uniform Conditions for Periodical Technical Inspections of Wheeled Vehicles and the Reciprocal Recognition of such Inspections, of 1997, (1997 Agreement), affords the legal framework for the technical inspections of automobiles and is mainly useful for setting up national periodical technical inspection systems and minimum standards in the direction of which the automobiles are to be examined. Accession to and implementation of this agreement help nations make sure that safer and less polluting cars are circulating on their roads, even as the reciprocal recognition of the tests delivered by means of it facilitate the pass border movement of motors.

Selected EU regulatory frameworks
In addition to the above, that also make a part of the EU street delivery guidelines, the subsequent 4 (four) EU legal frameworks addressing the professionalism of drivers and operators as well as the technical inspections of motors, had been selected for merchandising amongst EuroMed partners.

Regulation (EC) No 1071/2009 of the European Parliament and the Council of 21 Oct. 2009 organising not unusual guidelines regarding the situations to be complied with to pursue the profession of road transport operator and laying down minimal conditions governing admission to the career of avenue shipping operator. The Regulation obliges undertakings to have (a) an powerful and solid establishment; (b) be of properly repute; (c) have appropriate monetary status; and (d) have the requisite professional competence. Such provisions have as a end result the improvement of the profession of road transport operators.

Training of Professional Drivers
Directive 2003/fifty nine/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 July 2003 on the initial qualification and periodic training of drivers of certain avenue vehicles for the carriage of products or passengers, ensuring that the driver is of a general to have get right of entry to to and carry out the activity of driving. The Regulation obliges drivers, similarly to a using allow, to preserve an initial qualification and to undergo periodic training (every five years) meant to enhance avenue safety and the protection of the driver. In order to establish that the motive force complies with the responsibilities, the driver must own a certificate of professional competence, referred as ‘CPC’. Such provisions have as a end result the development of the professionalism of expert drivers.

Technical circumstance of cars and inspection
Directives 2014/45/EU of three April 2014 and 2014/forty seven/EU of 3 April 2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council on periodic roadworthiness tests and on technical roadside inspection of industrial vehicles, respectively, ensuring that automobiles are stored in a secure and environmentally desirable situation during their use, following the technical standards and necessities relevant within the Union according with the set UN Agreements and Regulations and the EU law.

EuroMed Partner Country Efforts and Achievements with EuroMed TSP and RRU Support
Harmonization of countrywide rules in the location along the said regal frameworks, is rigorously promoted via regional and national workshops, seminars and technical assistance missions prepared by means of EuroMed Projects in all accomplice nations. Study tours have been held under EuroMed Projects, in Geneva, Switzerland and Haute Savoie, France and in Padua-Vicenza-Venice location, Italy. Roadmaps on accession and implementation of AETR, ATP and 1958 and 1997 Agreements have been elaborated and posted in cooperation with UNECE. High-stage participation of EuroMed officials inside the paintings of decided on UNECE intergovernmental our bodies in Geneva, have been endorsed and facilitated. National techniques had been elaborated and or reviewed with EuroMed Projects help, aimed toward promoting accession to and powerful implementation of UN Agreements in conjunction with research, analytical work, economic effect assessments, and pilot movements.

These efforts raised consciousness among EuroMed partners at the important importance of the UN Agreements and respective EU law and helped them familiarize with the applicable paintings of UNECE and EU. National legislations were changed in almost all EuroMed partners, stimulated through the ones UN Agreements and EU best practices, while accession and implementation to those agreements is ongoing. The accession of Palestine to the TIR Convention, in 2017 and to the Road Traffic Convention, in 2019 in addition to that of Tunisia to the 1997 Agreement, in 2020, are some of the concrete achievements, at the same time as Egypt’s accession to the TIR Convention is forthcoming. Moreover, EuroMed companion efforts brought about the outlet of AETR to Algeria, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, and Tunisia, whilst quickly AETR can be opened also to Egypt.

Concerted efforts also are pursued inside the place for enhancing professionalism of drivers and operators in addition to technical kingdom of automobile fleet. Mandatory education for professional drivers of positive road cars classes inspired through Directive 2003/fifty nine/EC is pursued already by using some EuroMed companions and their drivers safety performance is being improved by using respecting driving and relaxation times policies following the AETR Agreement. Rules for the access to the profession of shipping operator inspired by Regulation 1071/2009/EC are carried out in several EuroMed countries and identical is valid the transport of dangerous goods. The technical nation of the automobile circulating inside the place has been drastically progressed thru the software of a number of the Regulations annexed to the UN 1958 and 1997 Agreements and EU first-rate practice, together with factors of Directives 2014/forty five/EU and 2014/47/EU.

EuroMed Projects were instrumental in supporting companion international locations, harmonize their delivery rules and decorate the overall performance of delivery operations in the vicinity in help of the implementation of the regulatory elements of the RTAP 2014 – 2020. However, in spite the efforts, as seen in the following table, accession to the chosen UN avenue shipping legal instruments is still not well superior. Lack of Human recourses on the involved Ministries and lack or restricted cross-border avenue freight delivery operations reducing the urgency of the want for harmonisation, are a few of the issues going through EuroMed international locations with regard to their accession to those legal gadgets. The COVID-19 pandemic has additionally negatively affected this technique.

Figure 1. EuroMed Partners’ Accession to the chosen UN street delivery criminal contraptions, October 2020
Conclusions and Recommendations
The high importance of the regulatory convergence in selling crossborder delivery and global haulage and upgrading street transport overall performance in South Mediterranean location, has end up apparent to EuroMed associate international locations. However, even as the focus of the efforts was towards street haulage, which holds the largest proportion of the overall freight land transport movements, the crossborder avenue freight shipping in the South Mediterranean vicinity stays instead limited, because of subregional conflicts and protection worries. While EuroMed partners have made substantial progress in the beyond years, a lot of efforts are still required. Regulatory reform and convergence of shipping law, development of harmonized shipping guidelines and standards, higher professionalism for drivers and operators and advanced technical country of the vehicle fleets, have to stay the highest precedence inside the location, when you consider that they are considered stipulations for the development of green land shipping structures for the merchandising of pass-border delivery and global haulage. Accompanied with National Strategies, which includes on Road Safety, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) and Digitalization of Transport, will cause greater operations and management of delivery structures, decreased congestion and GHG emissions and stepped forward community efficiency.

Moreover, current national inland transport strategies need to be reviewed and on every occasion not in region elaborated. Such strategies need to define countrywide regulatory tactics for enhancing the street delivery device, facilitating cross-border transport and international haulage, and improving street protection, for which accession and complete implementation of the said UN felony contraptions is important. Strategies should additionally deal with weather exchange with all its negative results, being the largest social and environmental challenges before the global financial system, taking observe that shipping is liable for 27% of general EU-28 Greenhouse Gas emissions, 72% of which come from road transport (EEA, 2017).

References

Road Transport in Morocco: What is the Best Route Out of the COVID-19 Crisis?
Jaafar Sallouhi, Adviser to the Director of Land Transport and Logistics, Ministry of Equipment, Transport, Logistics and Water, Kingdom of Morocco

Introduction
Like many other countries across the world, Morocco become affected by an unprecedented economic and social crisis in 2020 because of the COVID19 pandemic.

During this disaster, avenue shipping agencies across all sectors played a crucial function in transferring goods, helping the operation of deliver chains, repatriating residents and transporting human beings to their place of job, all even as growing the risk to their employees’ health and properly-being.

However, the outcomes of the crisis were quick felt and impacted several sectors, which include shipping and logistics, which skilled great challenges.

Road passenger shipping has been particularly tough hit by way of the virus, mainly while one considers the lockdown measures, restrictions on motion, shielding measures, the truth that delivery seems to be a major component in transmission of the virus and the speed with which the virus spreads. In fact, the measures taken by means of the Moroccan government, particularly the fitness authorities, to contain the unfold of the virus for the reason that first cases of COVID-19 appeared in March 2020 have had dramatic repercussions on the profitability of public and personal passenger delivery corporations, particularly due to the whole shutdown of public passenger and traveller transport.

Nevertheless, freight transport organizations have been affected to a lesser volume, in component due to the collective efforts of the government and specialists inside the area to ensure the continuity of freight operations. However, the crisis has no longer affected all freight transport corporations to the equal diploma. Suppliers in certain sectors underneath precise stress (food, refrigeration, crucial merchandise, courier, and many others.) have been exceedingly efficient, even as others came to a digital standstill. This scenario turned into the result of the delivery area’s excessive dependence on its client industries (shippers and contractors), which experienced a slowdown or partial or total suspension of operations, and the growth in call for for crucial merchandise, which gave rise to conditions that had been occasionally tough to manipulate (waft imbalances, non-guaranteed loading rates, empty returns, adjustment of shipping plans, and many others.).

Admittedly, the COVID-19 crisis has had a big, remarkable effect on mobility operations and delivery structures, however it has additionally uncovered the weaknesses and structural failings in the Moroccan region.

Although it is relatively untimely to draw definitive conclusions and lessons for the delivery quarter, one element is positive: this fitness crisis marks a “before” and an “after” for the arena. It will supply upward push to a new context wherein the shipping area may be compelled to recall new approaches of adapting and evolving to satisfy destiny challenges and be better organized to reinforce its resilience and face a destiny marked by means of uncertainty.

Decarbonization of Transport: Towards Greater Awareness?
Although the COVID-19 crisis has had a intense impact on monetary and social aspects of Morocco’s shipping quarter, it has also delivered fine consequences, thanks in large element to the exceptional lockdown and restrictions on movement and tour. These blessings consist of a reduction in environmental externalities, in particular a cut in CO2 emissions, higher air satisfactory and stepped forward road protection signs due to the drop in the variety of street fatalities and accidents.

Raising focus concerning those tremendous components may also nicely have a lasting impact on destiny mobility behaviour and will encourage the country’s political decision-makers to set up a countrywide strategy for sustainable mobility, to consider more low-carbon answers and to assist a transition closer to safer, extra efficient, more on hand, extra inclusive and greater resilient transport systems.

Management of the pandemic and its financial and social consequences should not neglect measures to fight weather trade in transport. On the opposite, post-COVID-19 public regulations and monetary recuperation plans have to allow for similarly progress closer to inexperienced, sustainable answers for the transport region.

Physical Distancing: A Catalyst for Digitization in Transport
The managing of the COVID-19 pandemic has served to boost arguments in favour of digitizing services and the fashion towards “0 paper” in numerous sectors, mainly delivery and associated offerings.

The context created by way of the unfold of the virus, lockdown measures, social distancing and restrictions on movement has in addition highlighted the need for digitization. The lack of a virtual solution changed into broadly discovered via the suspension and termination of offerings and the brilliant extension of validity durations for certain documents issued to users.

Paperless administrative strategies and using digital documentation are therefore turning into essential to make sure the continuity of offerings. They also offer a actual opportunity to speed up digital transformation and in the end enhance economic growth and improvement.

Through pass-sectoral interactions between Morocco’s numerous techniques, the shipping quarter is gambling a valuable role in this dynamic and has been pressured to observe this fashion, especially to aid its development. Digitization is consequently now not an alternative for transport stakeholders and professionals, but as an alternative an absolute necessity to evolve to the improvement and steady adjustments in the marketplace.

In this context, the Ministry has launched numerous tasks, specially the digitization of shipping methods and files, which include those issued to freight delivery experts, promotion of virtual freight exchanges, deployment of teleservices and the large utility of on-line appointments for public services such as riding licences, registration documents, periodic technical inspections and the character approval of motors.

The Ministry is also that specialize in finishing and upgrading its criminal and regulatory gear governing the arena with the intention to monitoring the trends and adjustments that it has passed through during the pandemic or even to expect such changes in the destiny.

With admire to human capital, new occupations will unavoidably emerge on this context, that is overflowing with new technology. To that end, the authorities will recognition on getting ready and deploying ok education plans aimed at potential-constructing in regions related to digitization and statistics systems (TMS, WMS, etc.).

Improving Transport Services in Rural Areas: The Path to Social Equity?
The current crisis has also highlighted the inequalities within the provision of transport solutions and revealed the want for governments to put into effect mobility rights for all citizens, irrespective of whether they stay in city, peri-city or rural regions. In this regard, it have to be referred to that the challenges going through shipping policymakers with regards to setting up and ensuring the rules of a fair, equitable and sustainable delivery gadget are complex and exceptionally diverse.

According to the projections of the Moroccan trendy population and housing census (RGPH) installed by way of the High Commission for Planning (HCP), almost 32.2% of the Moroccan populace will stay in rural areas by means of 2030. Therefore, improving way of get right of entry to and mobility may be key to attaining goals for increase and the reduction of social and territorial disparities. To gain this, but, it’s miles important to undertake and implement public regulations regarding transport in rural areas, which include avenue infrastructure, modes of shipping and shipping services.

Nevertheless, regardless of the big investments made by using the Moroccan public authorities for the reason that mid-1990s within the development and rehabilitation of road infrastructure in rural areas via numerous programmes, maximum substantially the National Rural Roads Programme (PNRR-1 and PNRR-2), the Territorial Upgrading Programme (PMAT) and the Programme for the Reduction of Territorial and Social Disparities (PRDTS), these interventions have now not fully delivered on the population’s developing expectations in terms of accessibility, nor have they stepped forward the social conditions of rural areas or effectively replied to the need to boost economic sports.

Thus, if these investments are to offer the agricultural population with vast economic and social benefits, a more comprehensive method have to be followed via the public authorities and the diverse stakeholders to improve shipping planning and implement additional measures to cope with both infrastructure improvement and the supply of first-rate shipping offerings that meet the unique mobility desires of rural regions and are compatible with the agricultural populace’s shopping energy.

Conclusion
Plans and answers to overcome the disaster and mitigate its effect need to be addressed by using all economic sectors, including delivery. The silo mentality of sectoral public regulations ought to end up a factor of the past. Now is the time for all stakeholders to pool their information and come up with thoughts to provide concrete, progressive and sustainable responses to the on the spot challenges posed by using this disaster, and also to long-time period challenges that could rise up all at once. Of route, in the global of the “new normal”, the shipping quarter ought to make remarkable efforts to conform and every so often even rework itself if it’s miles going to play its complete component in recuperation.

Chapter four: Rail Transport
Before the arrival of COVID-19, the rail shipping region become already working on a chain of developments aimed to contribute to its reinforcement, by means of increasing its weight within the basic drift of freight and passengers. These include the resilience of the arena, its impact at the sustainability of the shipping device, its interest in consolidating itself because the backbone of a multimodal gadget and digitalisation methods.

The evolution of these trends is immediately connected to new call for patterns, as the health crisis has caused a alternate in behavior among some sectors of the population (teleworking, e-trade, and so forth.). Potential new deliver patterns should additionally be taken into account, which include the provision of latest services and higher integration among modes of transport within urban and metropolitan areas. And sooner or later, innovation and research methods that may have an effect on stations, rolling stock, signalling and manage, are elements where harmonisation plays a key position.

Rail Transport: Towards a New Normal
Marc Guigon, Passenger Director. Coordinator of the Latin America Region. Coordinator of the COVID-19 Global Rail Task Force. UIC – International Union of Railways.

Introduction
In February 2020, UIC set up a mission force to paintings with its contributors, specialists and worldwide rail transport associations with a view to sharing and imparting information at the crisis because of the coronavirus (COVID19) and its consequences for the rail shipping sector. Shortly afterwards, specific desires led the running organization to supply numerous operational files in multiple languages (www.Uic.Org/ covid-19/):

“Management of COVID-19: Guidance for Railway Stakeholders”, which outlines ability measures to assist railway stakeholders and provide reliable facts on precise challenges dealing with the enterprise.
“Potential Measures to Restore Confidence in Rail Travel Following the COVID-19 Pandemic”, which lists the various measures that could be taken by using railway stakeholders to boom a sense of protection amongst passengers.
“RAILsilience: How the Rail Sector Fought COVID-19 During Lockdowns”, which describes the state of affairs all through the lockdown and the measures carried out by using the rail sector for the duration of the combat towards the epidemic.
“RAILsilience: Back on Track”, which provides the measures taken by using members to resume rail visitors.
Other documents issued include: “Masks, Ventilation and Social Distancing”, “Thermographic Cameras”, “First Estimation of the Global Economic Impact of COVID19 on Rail Transport” and “Contamination Rates on Trains”.
A Global Economic Assessment
In our evaluation of the financial effect at the rail industry executed in mid-2020, on the stop of the first wave, we concluded that call for for travel will on the whole be delayed till 2021. Passenger call for in 2020 turned into anticipated to decline on common via around 30% as compared to 2019, whilst the freight region changed into predicted to say no on common via up to 10%. Unfortunately, passenger self assurance became predicted to remain low.
It is obvious that this scenario will result in heavy losses in 2020 with appreciate to passenger operations, to be able to stay extensively elevated within the medium time period.

The effect on the freight area can not be in comparison to the passenger zone because the sports fluctuate and the lockdown at some point of the COVID-19 disaster frequently gave upward push to a shift from road to rail transport. In addition, whilst many borders have been closed to passenger visitors, the borders remained open for freight. That stated, manufacturing output has fallen in a few nations, which has brought about a decline in freight delivery.

Losses in freight operations within the first half of 2020 had been lower than those in the 2d half of 2020. Most nations, in particular China, however additionally European countries, skilled a shift from road to rail transport throughout the lockdown.
Economic Support Measures
An initial estimate, achieved in mid2020, of the worldwide financial effect at the rail industry turned into round one hundred twenty five billion dollars for 2020.

In mid-2020, UIC requested its contributors which of the following shortor medium-time period guide measures they would like:

Direct monetary help.
Reduction in infrastructure get admission to
costs.
Reduction in / removal of VAT and
different taxes.
Secured loans.
A stage gambling discipline for all modes of
transport.
UIC participants also noted measures such as shortto mediumterm wage repayment for the duration of COVID-19 crises and lengthy-time period debt discount.

Respondents were requested to rank the proposals from 1 to six, in which 1 become the financial degree they considered maximum important and six was the least crucial. Therefore, a price close to one indicated that the economic degree turned into rather favored by using the respondents.

In the short and medium term, it’s miles clean that the pinnacle precedence includes the instantaneous recuperation of economic losses.

All the other financial measures proposed received comparable ratings.

Priorities for shortor medium-term financial support degree
Long-term analysis revealed completely exclusive priorities in comparison to shortterm evaluation. While the maximum vital degree remained direct financial assistance, the second priority modified. In the long term, a degree gambling area for all modes of shipping changed a discount in infrastructure access modifications, which fell to third region.

Priorities for long-term economic guide measures. While financial measures had been carried out in other transport sectors in lots of parts of the arena, comparable measures are expected for the rail sector, which has absolutely been significantly stricken by the crisis.

The priorities of different railway sector corporations may fluctuate between world regions, relying on whether or not the scope of application is confined to infrastructure control or to train operations and rolling stock maintenance, or encompasses both.

It is really worth noting that, in this submit-lockdown section, maximum participants are dealing with serious coins go with the flow problems and feature expressed a desire for direct monetary help over tax cuts and a degree gambling field among all modes of shipping, which nonetheless stay lengthy-time period problems.

The rail quarter is undergoing an unparalleled disaster that requires economic measures from the authorities. Members expressed their choice for direct monetary help, despite the fact that numerous other alternatives could be considered, along with lower infrastructure prices, a reduction in or removal of VAT and different taxes, secured loans and a degree gambling field among all modes of delivery.

The New Normal
What is the new regular? It refers back to the strong scenario so one can be reached as soon as the pandemic and its direct aftereffects had been triumph over. It is apparent that, in countries in which the disaster has lasted a long term, the after-results will be felt for many months, or even years, within the form of an economic downturn. The new regular will therefore take region after this era, at the side of all the lengthy-term effects. Indeed, developments that need to have happened over the long time have taken area in advance than expected due to the crisis. Depending at the u . S . A ., this new everyday will begin sometime between 2021 and 2025.

In some international locations, the brand new regular will resemble predictions made before the disaster, given the quick duration and coffee effect of the disaster. This applies especially to China, where more or less normal sports have been resumed right away before the summer of 2020, and which therefore did not have time to make lasting changes in behaviour.

In other countries, specially in Europe and the Americas, the disaster has lasted longer and conduct have changed, particularly with reference to the way of humans paintings and journey.

The pre-disaster traits in Europe have been:

Moderate financial increase.
Development of tourism.
Liberalization within the global of rail delivery.
Balanced multimodal opposition.
Major technological progress.
Important tendencies in price tag distribution activities promoted by UIC.
Developments in intermodality.
Increased environmental focus.
The COVID-19 disaster curtailed a number of these sports, particularly through:

Widespread teleworking for positions in which this was an option.
A positive quantity of counter-urbanization, with many human beings leaving towns to telework in quieter, much less highly-priced locations inclusive of cities and rural regions.
Economic collapse in some sectors.
Significant restrictions on tourism.
A halt on new infrastructure construction work.
A need for widespread financial assets.
Development of “digital mobility” thru faraway meetings.
Less priority given to environmental troubles.
An impression that public shipping modes are much less secure than man or woman shipping in terms of fitness.
The publish-COVID-19 environment will have an effect on rail mobility within the following ways:

Most pre-COVID-19 trends can be expedited.
The balance between bodily mobility and digital mobility will shift in favour of the latter. Many corporations have observed that remote conferences are as a minimum as powerful as face-to-face conferences. This has been mainly actual at UIC with recognize to worldwide meetings, wherein the quantity of nations worried has grown drastically during the crisis. This has made it needless for members to journey, as a result saving both money and time. On the opposite hand, conferences have to be scheduled in accordance with every u . S . A .’s time sector, and there may be no substitution for assembly in man or woman in relation to learning people, making technical visits and taking selections. Moreover, some cultures (especially in Asia) decide upon face-to-face conferences to on line conferences.
Public price range will cut back because of the hovering money owed of nations for the duration of the disaster.
It will take some time for passengers to return to train journey.
Environmental consciousness will boom, which favours rail tour with appreciate to air travel over medium distances. In specific, earlier than the crisis, on three-hour rail journeys, as many humans travelled through teach as with the aid of air. The general journey time is clearly four hours or more. This makes a strong case for bringing again night trains, that may replace overnight lodge remains if the fine is right sufficient. Some international locations will make stronger this fashion through now not allowing commercial airlines to operate on routes in direct competition with high-pace trains.
Evolution of Mobility Demand
The factors described above will reason the call for for mobility to exchange quite considerably inside the nations around the Mediterranean.

Business journeys will decrease and get replaced through on line meetings, a state of affairs on the way to maintain for a while.

Some countries will adopt laws to facilitate teleworking, in an effort to have two opposing effects:

A reduction inside the extent of suburban and local every day journeys.
An growth in sure lengthy-distance journeys due to the relocation of human beings who’ve left their homes in cities to stay in cities or rural areas. They would possibly favor to e book inn rooms once or twice every week that allows you to visit the office.
For organizations, this upward thrust in teleworking should cause great financial savings in workplace condo, given that corporations should installation shared workplaces or hot desks for coworking.

Teleworking will also be the norm in university research, far flung exams, faraway scientific consultations, etc. Furthermore, growth of the round financial system may have an impact on passenger and freight shipping.

In towns, traditional modes of transport could be partially replaced by means of socalled “soft” mobility, a good way to require different investments in infrastructure and new travel guidelines.

Tourism will keep to boom, however greater environmentally pleasant modes of shipping will be greater commonplace. Stigmatization of air travel (flight shaming, aircraft bashing and the Greta Effect) will maintain to boom amongst all social training.

It is precisely the proper moment for governments to promote formidable regulations to expand extra environmentally friendly modes of transport, specially people who favour rail delivery.

The COVID-19 crisis may gift an possibility for the rail area, for the reason that countries and supra-nation companies will offer enormous funding to restart the financial system.

This should contain new investments for excessive-speed strains, which might be incredibly a hit in Western Europe, and in Asia (China, Japan, South Korea), and represent a key aspect in financial improvement. There are still huge areas not handy by means of excessive-speed rail across the Mediterranean Basin. These investments can be earmarked for new high-velocity traces (above 250 km/h) or for upgrading current strains for speeds above 200 km/h.

Environmental Awareness
Most of the sector’s rail organizations have pledged to attain carbon neutrality through 2050 with the aid of signing a percent proposed by using UIC, which means that that measures on this direction might be taken within the area with essential help from national and regional government.

This additionally requires aid for intermodality to promote using several modes of delivery, in step with the precise capabilities of each mode: ticketing, services in stations, redecorate of the urban environment around “tender” delivery.

Other Factors
Competition among rail companies following liberalization can also have a fantastic effect on both shipping fees and the nice of services presented to clients.

This turned into specifically evident in Italy with the competition among NTV-Italo and FS-Trenitalia, which led to exceptionally great trends inside the quantity of highspeed train visitors that benefited both railway operators. The rail / air modal split between Milan and Rome for this reason increased from 36% in 2008 to 80% in 2018, even as, at the same time, the percentage of air traffic decreased from 50% to fourteen%.

This latest disaster strongly affected new railway operators, as the extent of the worldwide market did not permit several operators to compete for the same routes. They therefore reduced their improvement plans for the close to destiny.

The predicted discount in mobility associated with new running habits will also pressure infrastructure managers to reduce the value of getting access to infrastructure. The position of the general public government will consequently be to set up a brand new stability among subsidies and the infrastructure expenses paid via railway operators.

Conclusion
Governments should provide the rail zone with sturdy help even as selling the safest, most sustainable mode of shipping, which performs a major function in the destiny mobility system of maximum nations.

This is especially real for rail freight, that can play a essential role in supporting a sustainable logistics fee chain, but also applies to passenger operations, at a time while travel situations and expectations are converting dramatically.

This support can be supplied thru investments in new infrastructure, but can also take the shape of presidency rules that help and provide rail shipping a actual social and monetary benefit.

Synergies among the Mediterranean Corridor and the Trans-Maghreb Multimodal Corridor
Josep Vicent Boira, Government Commissionner for the Mediterranean Corridor, Government of Spain

Matteo Berzi, Office of the Government Commissionner for the Mediterranean Corridor, Government of Spain

Introduction
In this contribution the authors explore the ability synergies among the Mediterranean Corridor, developed in the Transeuropean Transport Network and Trans-Maghreb Multimodal Corridor (TMC) in the post COVID19 Era. Firstly, each Corridors are supplied, stressing on the importance of railway as an green and sustainable shipping mode for freight and passengers. The importance of Morocco and Spain for both Corridors can also be highlighted. Secondly, the ability synergies between Mediterranean Corridor and TMC can be proposed in accordance to 3 complementary geographical scales: the Alboran Sea as an rising geo-economics maritime space, the Spanish-Moroccan Cooperation and, subsequently the EU-Maghreb role in connecting transcontinental flows.

The Mediterranean Corridor: Towards a Resilient Transport Network
The Mediterranean Corridor is one of the nine principal corridors designed by means of the European Union inside the Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T). It is conceived as a multimodal hall that crosses 6 nations (Spain-FranceItaly-Slovenia-Croatia and Hungary) along 3,500 km. It will provide multimodal hyperlinks from the ports and terminals of the Western Mediterranean to Central and Eastern Europe. The Med Corridor is interconnected with other 7 corridors and it presents an efficient, sustainable, and speedy link between the primary European markets and the Spanish Mediterranean monetary device (Figure 1 and a couple of). TEN-T network is consequently a strategic scheme to make sure and beautify the mobility of each human beings and items, as declared in the Schengen Treaty.

The regulatory framework is defined in Regulation 1315/2013 (EC, 2013), which establishes the pointers for the improvement of a Trans-European Transport Network, determining the projects of commonplace interest and specifying the requirements that have to be met. To reap those desires, the Commission introduced the Connecting European Facility Fund (CEF) thru the Regulation 1316/2013. Furthermore, different EU funding programmes aid TEN-T improvement just like the European Fund for Strategic Investment (EFSI), Horizon 2020 (for research and improvement initiatives), Cohesion Fund (CF) and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).

The European Corridors seeks to achieve two primary pillars, interoperability and intermodality thru the coordinated execution of works and initiatives. Indeed, the appropriate planning of the Trans-European Transport Network is crucial to enable green and long-distance delivery operations. Regarding the railway system, the primary goal is to reap the total connection between the primary nodes (Core Network) of every Corridor via 2030 in accordance with the subsequent necessities:

Implementation of Standard song gauge (1435mm)
Train length > 740 m
Electrification 25Kv
ERTMS Communication System
Axle hundreds ≥ 22.5 lots
Improve rail connections with ports and terminals.
The Mediterranean Corridor is lots more than a railway infrastructure. It is a massive multimodal shipping project which additionally includes roads, ports and airports in a greater sustainable and competitive way. Beyond the infrastructural improvement, it’s far vital to sell operations and services for passengers and freights. In this sense, the new sections must be complementary for both makes use of. Another vital mission is the development of a wide logistics strategy linking ports, airports, Rail-Road Terminals, and industries together. Not surprisingly, the Mediterranean Corridor will develop its complete potential when its special modes of shipping are connected. That is why we need to redefine logistics to reinforce the boom of intermodal terminals and port connections.

Finally, it is essential to higher combine the infrastructure in urban nodes. For example, in Spain between Barcelona and Almeria there are extra than 11 towns with more than 100,000 inhabitants, which calls for specific attention to how the hall crosses densely populated areas. But these kind of efforts will no longer be sufficient with out the accurate making plans of passenger and freight offerings, which objectives at providing fast and effective transport. To achieve this intention, it’s miles essential that infrastructure improvement is primarily based on reliable and truthful evaluation.

Figure 1. Transeuropean Transport Network (TEN-T)

Figure 2. The Mediterranean Corridor in Spain

The Transmaghreb Multimodal Corridor: Multi-Scale Territorial Project
The Transmagreb Multimodal Corridor (TMC) is the maximum formidable mission of multimodal hall of the Southern Mediterranean Shore, from Mauritania to Libya, passing thru Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, this is, the countries that make up the Maghreb. This EastWest hyperlink is one of the most essential in Africa (African Development Bank Group, 2015), just like the TEN-T community, targets to connect the primary cities and the strategic nodes for freight delivery of the worried international locations through the modernization of road and rail infrastructures. Among the most critical there are the ports of Nouadhibou and Nouakchott (Mauritania), Tangier Med, Nador, Casablanca and Agadir (Morocco), Oran, Arzew, Annaba, Alger, Djen-Djen and Skikda (Algeria), TunisRadés (Tunisia). Regarding the rail hall, the entire period might reach 6,700km for freight traffic and five,four hundred for passengers, 4,000km could be shared among each modes (CETMO, 2019). However, great works for the modernization and extension of the infrastructure are needed to turn out to be an green, secure, interoperable and intermodal delivery gadget. Investment for the rail mode of more than 50,000 million Euros become expected in 2018 (greater than four,000 million €/year).

Beyond the Mediterranean scale, TMC represents an possibility to connect Sahel international locations with the middle of Europe in a greater efficient, sustainable, and secure way. Like all commercial and shipping interconnection initiatives on the global level, it’s far predicted that the TMC will promote a certain political stabilization and development of international relations in each the Maghreb and the Sahel. Influential exponents of the commercial enterprise area have already expressed their support to such an ambitious initiative (Figure three).

Figure 3. Position of Issad Rebrarb, President of the Algerian industrial institution Cevital, in favour of the development of a transcontinental rail corridor in Africa.
On the global stage, this project is strategic for the Belt and Road Initiative (BIR), promoted with the aid of the Chinese authorities, who’s commercial and transport investments will enhance logistics and multimodal freight delivery (in particular railways) in the international locations of the TMC (Zulfikar Rakhmat, 2014). Some of the maximum exciting tasks are:

The Construction of the Cité Tanger Tech Mohammed VI (Morocco), a new business, logistics and technological centre (2000ha) that’s predicted to generate extra than a hundred,000 jobs (CGNT Africa, 2020). The new port can have a capability of nine million bins.
New vehicle factories and automobile additives industries in Morocco (Eliason, 2019).
The construction of the port of elHamdamia (Algeria), with a purpose to be the second one biggest in the Mediterranean after Tanger-Med (CGNT Africa, 2019).
A 1.000ha new logistics zone in the port of Zarzis, (Tunisia).
The new railway line Zarzis-Gabès (Tunisia);
The new Tunisian automobile manufacturing facility of SAIC– the Chinese state vehicle manufacturing organization (Ecofin Agency, 2018).
Morocco as key participant for TMC

Within this assignment, the usa with the most superior railway infrastructure is absolutely Morocco. 60% of its rail network is galvanized and freight shipping is similar, in phrases of general tons, to Spain and different European nations (Table 1). 70% of the visitors goes to sea ports and passes through the dry ports of Casablanca, Fez and Marrakech. The destination is mainly the port of Tanger Med, the biggest within the Afro-Mediterranean location and the thirty fifth inside the international with the aid of volume of site visitors. In January 2021, the 0.33 terminal changed into inaugurated, increasing Moroccan leadership in maritime traffic.

Within rail freight transport, a strategic hobby is automobile transport. In 2017, 334,000 motors had been transported through rail (ONCF, 2018), that is, half of of the overall vehicles transported at some stage in Spain within the identical period. These flows are explained through the current establishment of European automobile factories (Renault, PSA, Fiat) and China (BYD) and it’s far expected a sizable boom within the future, as 90% of this manufacturing is exported (Oxford Business Group, 2021). Within the framework of the Belt and Road Initiative, the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) signed among Morocco and China has already generated crucial outcomes: two factories for aluminium vehicle components were lately built and they may be the primary of their kind in Africa. As a end result, the logistics sector may be a priority for the Moroccan financial system and the railway will play an essential function in a multimodal perspective. Substantial advances have also been made for passenger delivery with the TangierKentira High-Speed Line in 2018, the first segment of the Moroccan HighSpeed Line (HSL) ‘Al Boraq’, aimed toward connecting Casablanca with Tangier (338km) in 1.30h (envisioned by using 2022 or 2023). Furthermore, Morocco deliberate to connect its foremost cities with the HSL by using 2035. It is the first excessive speed line in Africa.

Table 1. Comparison among rail infrastructure and rail freight shipping between Spain and Morocco
Synergies Between Mediterranean Corridor & Trans-Maghreb Corridor
Synergies and Complementarities among the Mediterranean Corridor and the Trans-Maghreb Multimodal Corridor can be defined at 3 distinct scales: local (Alboran Sea), bilateral (Spain-Morocco) and EuroMediterranean (EU-Maghreb). The commonplace denominator amongst all these all these scales is the railway, conceived as intermodal delivery community, interoperable, aggressive, and environmentally sustainable.

Regional Scale: complementarity in the Alboran Sea

The Alboran Sea represents a shared maritime space among Morocco, Algeria, and Spain in the westernmost of the Mediterranean Sea. The main maritime flows are concentrated between Tanger-Med and Algeciras for apparent geographical reasons: the Port of Algeciras is a real monetary engine for Spain and for the Mediterranean basin, being one at the busiest port of Europe and inside the global. Nonetheless, in keeping with a regional perspective there are other critical ports for the change of freight and passengers, which includes Almería, Motril, Cartagena, Málaga, Melilla, Nador and Oran. Some of them are part of the TEN-T Network and they’ll be a competitive alternative for multimodal transport (Almería and Motril). Those on the southern shore of the Mediterranean are already included inside the TMC.

The Alboran Sea is simply rising geoeconomic space, in which the complementarity and optimization of the present infrastructures must be improved. Alboran ports act each as attractors of worldwide maritime flows and as poles of regional redistribution and mutual change (Figure 4). Among them, RoRo visitors is of primary significance. In this feel, it is not hard to assume a state of affairs wherein the ones ports will change rail-port flows in a competitive way, thanks to the interoperability of each railway infrastructure and the interconnection with different ports and urban nodes in Spain and in Maghreb. A have a look at at the enhancement of logistics and multimodality inside the Alboran Sea would be very useful to foresee future synergies and to reinforce the development of both corridors.

Figure 4. Main ports of the Alboran Sea and railway connections
Strengthening Spain-Morocco Cooperation in railway development
The Trans-Maghreb Multimodal Corridor is as strategic for Morocco as the Mediterranean Corridor is for Spain. Both nations need to sell their rail freight delivery for home and global markets. They railway networks are the hyperlinks among the Sahel and Europe. Moroccan rail freight delivery is above many European countries and on the same level of Spain (in phrases of total annual heaps). We accept as true with that it’s far necessary to bolster mutual trade relations, especially multimodal offerings, thru a coopetition technique: cooperate bilaterally to compete globally. It can be exciting to consciousness on capability Spanish Moroccan railway operation, sea-short transport (Table 2) and at the elimination of technical and administrative limitations. The study of bilateral trade relations prepared by CETMO (tab.2) constitutes an amazing place to begin. At a economic stage, attention ought to be paid to European Multiannual Framework 2021-27: the reactivation of the Spain-Morocco move-border cooperation software could be an excellent opportunity to finance pilot projects. Interesting tasks were funded by the EU Program POCTEFA – CrossBorder Cooperation Program between France, Spain and Andorra, just like the TRAILS Project (Batlle, 2020).

Table 2. Main maritime relation between Med Corridor ports and Maghreb (import) MEDC and TMC: intercontinental connection among Africa and Europe in Post-COVID generation
CETMO, as well as other institutions and research facilities, have confirmed how Euro-African freight flows have been developing constantly in the closing ten years (before the outbreak of the pandemic crisis). Many African international locations deliver European markets and its industries with raw materials consisting of energy merchandise and uncooked minerals. Conversely, Europe presents semi-finished products and simple agricultural or industrial products to African international locations. Many of these merchandise are well suited with rail delivery. In this experience, the two corridors play a essential role in taking pictures and dispensing such goods. The Mediterranean Corridor represents the quickest, maximum efficient, and environmentally sustainable manner to reach the financial heart of Europe (Prytherch, & Boira, 2011; Libourel, 2017; Loyer 2020). The ports of Andalusia, Murcia, Valencia, and Catalonia might be connected in the medium term with the usual gauge, so that part of these flows can be routed by means of freight trains to France, Germany and the alternative countries with out interruptions or educate adjustments. The Mediterranean Corridor already counts with the handiest Spanish port this is absolutely interoperable and already related to Europe, that is the Port of Barcelona.

In the Post-COVID-19 Era, Governance is a critical measurement for the fulfillment of the goals of both Corridors. The pandemic has unveiled the fragilities of the pre-COVID transport zone, specifically the dearth of digitalization, of infrastructural interoperability, and of synergies between all modes. Transport and logistics want to be more resilient. In this sense, we suppose it’s miles strategic to align the Trans-Maghreb Multimodal Corridor to the TEN-T scheme as hooked up in Regulations 1315/2013 and 1316/2013: similar goals, requirements, cut-off dates, financing opportunities and governance approaches might be also applied within the southern shore of the Mediterranean Sea. In this sense, the MEDA TEN-T venture evolved by way of CETMO is a good starting point. Thematic Working corporations will be also set up to bolster cooperation networks, to tackle not unusual demanding situations and to change true practice on precise subjects together with closing mile connection, bottlenecks removal (Medeiros et al, 2021) and move-border cooperation and concrete nodes. A TMC Coordinator may also be defined in addition to National Coordination Offices for each country involved and a widespread Work-plan can also be evolved. Last but no longer the least, the pedagogical component of TMC have to be promoted to the citizenship, being the infrastructural spine of the Maghreb, a real Euro-African gate. A Geographic Information System (GIS) will be a appropriate device for this task. Based on our revel in, an open GIS with updated facts on each infrastructure and services is exceedingly demanded for civil society, media, and industries.

References

Chapter five: Maritime Transport
Maritime transport, and mainly container delivery, has end up an crucial hyperlink in international deliver chains over the past many years. The direct impact of the COVID-19 crisis all through the first months of 2020 implied an version to the conditions imposed by means of the health emergency. However, the edition to a “new normality” raises questions about the destiny business enterprise of maritime delivery and the functioning of ports. In addition, there are different elements previous to the outbreak of the fitness disaster to recollect, which includes the effects of adaptation to climate exchange, the methods of vertical and horizontal integration of the maritime enterprise in recent years or, the technique of digitalisation.

In the Western Mediterranean, facing these uncertainties takes on special significance because of its role in worldwide field flows and their interrelation with trans-Mediterranean flows, the lifestyles and making plans of large port infrastructures and the unique effect predicted from the effects of weather trade within the Mediterranean location. Consequently, the healing of normality will mean crucial challenges for the maritime shipping region within the Western Mediterranean.

Shipping inside the Mediterranean
Jan Hoffmann, Chief Trade Logistics Branch, Division on Technology and Logistics, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

Port and shipping services take care of greater than 80% of worldwide trade volumes, and this share is even higher for most growing international locations. Despite the growing eCommerce – in fact invigorated by means of it – the bodily motion of goods across oceans remains on the middle of alternate pushed improvement. To participate in worldwide fee chains, Mediterranean nations depend on properly-connected ports and price-effective shipping services.

Beyond being users of port and shipping offerings, Mediterranean international locations additionally generate a few profits by supplying services and web hosting maritime organizations themselves. Some international locations of the place are crucial gamers in deliver proudly owning, registration, and transshipment offerings.

In current years, the difficulty of climate trade as emerged as primary task to folks who use and offer maritime transport services. Mediterranean international locations need to adapt to the affects of climate trade, such as rising sea tiers and greater common extreme weather occasions that affect ports. As the industry actions towards decarbonization, Mediterranean countries also want to evaluate and mitigate the potential results that decarbonization measures can also have on transport prices and connectivity.

In order to assist countries, investigate options for their maritime guidelines, this text seems at the maritime profiles, port overall performance, and transport connectivity of 12 nations in Southern Europe and Northern Africa.

Maritime Connectivity
In terms of their maritime transport connectivity, the twelve international locations protected inside the gift article can be organized into 3 corporations.

First, in Europe (from West to East), Portugal, Spain, France, Italy and Greece have country wide markets and hinterland connections. The maritime offerings through which they’re related to remote places suppliers and markets generally tend to serve a mixture of domestic demand, a much wider hinterland, in addition to transhipment offerings inside the case of Spain, Italy and Greece.
Second, Morocco, Malta and Egypt have a few national shipment volumes, however in particular benefit from their geographic role, providing transshipment offerings inside the international liner shipping network. Morocco and Egypt are the two African international locations with the highest liner delivery connectivity. The 0.33 maximum liner shipping connectivity for African countries is recorded in South Africa, i.E. The 3 best related international locations are those within the geographical corners of the continent.
Third, Mauritania, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya join on the whole thru RoRo and passenger offerings to European countries. Algeria and Libya are also crucial exporters of oil and hence receive a massive number of tankers.
UNCTAD publishes a quarterly Liner Shipping Connectivity Index (LSCI) on the countryand port-degrees. The index is generated in collaboration and with statistics from MDS Transmodal on the deployment of box ships. The underlying six components include difficult facts on the variety of ships, their container sporting ability in TEU (Twenty foot Equivalent Units), their length, the number of businesses the quantity of services, and the range of nations or ports that may be reached with out transshipment. The index gives a useful indication of every united states of america’s and every port’s position within the worldwide liner shipping community.

Figure 1. Liner Shipping Connectivity Index of nations, quarterly, Q1 2006 to Q4 2020

The excellent-linked us of a inside the Mediterranean is Spain, followed by using France and Italy. The 3 international locations benefit from each, their geographical area and their domestic markets and hinterlands. Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, and Tunisia, however, have very low liner delivery connectivity. Their LSCI has no longer expanded due to the fact that 2006. Morocco initially had the identical low connectivity as Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, and Tunisia, but way to the private region investment in Tanger Med now counts on a nation-of-the art transhipment hub and has the fifth maximum LSCI of the location (Figure 1).

In addition to bearing in mind comparisons at the us of a level, the Liner Shipping Connectivity Bilateral Index (LSBCI) depicts the level of connectivity between countries (Table 1). The maximum bi-lateral connectivity many of the 10 Mediterranean economies analysed for this bankruptcy is recorded between Spain and Italy, and between Spain and Morocco; observed by using the bilateral connectivity between France and Italy, and between France and Spain. The lowest bilateral connectivity is between Tunisia and Greece, and among Tunisia and Egypt.

Table 1. Bilateral connectivity index, 2019
Port Performance
Thanks to Automatic Identification System (AIS) facts, supplied with the aid of MarineTraffic, we have specified records about how many ships and what sort of ships call in each u . S . A .’s ports. Annual and semi-annual reviews about port calls and the time spent in port are available on UNCTAD-stat. The equal facts set additionally permits us to see the median time ships spent in port, in addition to their common age and the average and most shipment wearing capacity. Table 2 affords illustrative examples.

The maximum general variety of ships calls in 2019 a few of the 12 countries blanketed in this article have been recorded in Italy, with 233 081 arrivals, observed by using Greece (159 583) and Spain (142 773). Most of the deliver calls in these 3 countries had been passenger ships, along with ferries and cruise ships.

The lowest wide variety of vessel calls were recorded in Mauritania (806), Libya (2 772), Tunisia (4 068) and Algeria (6 188). In those Northern African international locations, a excessive proportion of the vessel calls are trendy shipment dry break bulk vendors. These ships are used for all kinds of cargo; they are used more frequently whilst cargo volumes are low and there may be much less incentive to deploy greater specialised ships. Liquid bulk companies are the maximum critical vessel type handiest in Libya.

The fastest turnaround instances for container ships in 2019 are recorded in Spain (zero.Sixty five days in keeping with ship in port), observed by using Portugal (0.69), France (0.Seventy five) and Morocco (0.78). Container ships spent longest within the ports of Algeria (three.22 days per ship in port), Tunisia (3.12), Libya (2.32) and Mauritania (1.97) (Table 2).

Everything else identical, it should virtually be predicted that time in port might be longer in those nations with extra box traffic, given that every ship has to load and dump more boxes. However, there’s also a causality going within the contrary course: More efficient ports are greater appealing for shippers and vendors and, for this reason, shorter time in port is a fantastic indicator of a port’s efficiency and exchange competitiveness.

With limited gateway shipment, there are fewer outside trucks inflicting congestion inside the yards, and with shipment arriving and departing in huge batches, potentially deliberate days ahead, transhipment ports have some fundamental blessings. Last and no longer least, maximum are operated through international terminal operators, and lots of are set-up as fee centres or joint ventures with the ship operators.

On average, seventy five-85 in keeping with cent of port call time of container ships is ate up by means of field operations, i.E. The time between the primary and ultimate box lifts, while the last time may be because of pilotage, mooring, likely Customs formalities and other operational or procedural requirements. There exists a huge unfold in common port times, and this need to be visible as an opportunity for improvement.

Table 2. Vessel arrivals and time spent in port, 2019. Examples of Algeria and Spain
Maritime Profiles
The UNCTAD Maritime Country Profiles display each usa’s participation in maritime companies. Figure 2 presents the instance of Morocco. It is interesting to peer how some countries are crucial companies of a few shipping segments, significantly deliver proudly owning (Greece) and deliver registration (Malta). However, most countries of the location are predominantly users of maritime shipping offerings (pondered in their percentage of vessel calls) than companies.

Figure 2. Market shares from maritime usa profiles, 2019. Examples of Italy and Tunisia
The Impact of COVID-19
In all international locations, for the duration of the primary semester of 2020, port calls in maximum vessel types declined significantly. Globally, in 2020, port calls of box shipswere 2.Eight% decrease than in 2019; this sector noticed the earliest healing. Port calls by preferred shipment ships went down with the aid of 7.8%, even as calls via dry bulkers and tankers declined by 4.1% and 4.Nine%, respectively. The maximum declines have been recorded for Ro/Ro vessels (minus 12.8%) and Passenger ships (minus 18.3%) (Table 3). Thus, cargo wearing ships fared higher than ships that convey human beings.

Table 3. Port calls in 2020, and trade over 2019
Among the 12 international locations protected in this bankruptcy, Morocco (-26.Five%), Spain (-24.Eight%), France (-22.1%) and Italy (-20.Eight%) saw the most important decline in port calls during the pandemic. These nations also have a excessive share of passenger and Ro/Ro site visitors, which are the 2 markets most heavily affected by the pandemic. Mauritania is the best united states that recorded an growth in port calls in 2020, albeit starting from the bottom base, and benefitting from growing arrivals of tankers.

Conclusions and Policy Implications
The nations within the sub-region are certainly customers of maritime delivery services. They aren’t deliver building nations (maximum ship building takes vicinity in China, Japan, and Korea), nor – except Greece – deliver proudly owning countries. Only Portugal and Malta have enormous ship registries, i.E. Overseas-owned ships fly the flag of those nations.

The fundamental hobby of the Mediterranean vicinity countries lies in port calls and visitors. And here there are massive differences in inside the performance, as measured as an instance within the liner delivery connectivity index and the time ships spend in port.

Building at the UNCTAD Review of Maritime Transport 2020, there are six precedence regions for coverage action to be taken in reaction to the COVID-19 pandemic and the persistent challenges going through the maritime shipping and trade.

First, Mediterranean international locations want to hold their assist to alternate so it can successfully maintain increase and development. Protectionism or export regulations, in particular for essential items in times of crisis, bring economic and social prices.
Second, carefully analyse the options to improve the resilience of deliver chains. For example, a shortening of deliver chains through re-shoring or close to shoring may additionally lessen shipping fees and fuel intake, however it does now not always future-evidence deliver chains in opposition to disruptions that might take place, regardless of the place. Diversification can be more vital and multi-sourcing approaches may also guarantee more resilience than strategies that concentrate manufacturing in a single location, whether at domestic or overseas. Especially for smaller economies, such as maximum of those included in this newsletter, would advantage extra from stronger regional integration instead of aiming at reducing foreign alternate.
Third, harness statistics for tracking and coverage responses. The use of fastevolving statistics abilties can assist efforts to forecast boom and reveal recovery developments. New assets of records and improved possibilities emanating from digitalization provide ample opportunities to analyse and enhance policies. The pandemic has highlighted the potential for real-time information on deliver movement and port traffic, in addition to facts on shipping schedules to generate early caution structures for financial growth and seaborne alternate.
Fourth, permit agile and resilient maritime transport structures. There is a need to put money into hazard management and emergency response preparedness past pandemics. Future-proofing the maritime deliver chain and managing risks requires more visibility of door-to-door transport operations.
Fifth, keep the momentum on sustainability, weather-trade version and resilience-building. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has embarked on a programme aimed toward the decarbonization of transport. According to the fourth Green-House-Gas Study of the IMO, the proportion of shipping emissions in worldwide anthropogenic emissions has multiplied from 2.Seventy six% in 2012 to two.89% in 2018. The intention of the IMO is, but, to reduce the emissions, and finally to attain 0-carbon delivery. The ensuing energy transition in transport is the maximum essential venture for maritime transport in many many years, similar to the shift from wind to steam ships, or from steam ships to oil-fuelled ships. The transition will impact the ships and port operations, in addition to the cargo carried, as presently about forty% of seaborne change consists of power products (oil, coal, gas). Especially some of the Northern African nations ought to grow to be important future companies of opportunity fuels for the future global fleet.
Sixth, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused a in addition push towards trade facilitation, mainly solutions that require digitalization. In their responses to the disaster, governments and port government are pushing for reforms that goal at keeping change flowing even as nonetheless protective populations, shipping people, and officials working on the ports. It might be wrong to suppose that there may be a form of exchange-off between alternate facilitation and controls, or that governments would have to strike a balance. The contrary is true: Practically all trade facilitation measures which are protected, for example, inside the Trade Facilitation Agreement of the World Trade Organization assist obtain both: faster and more transparent trade procedures, and on the equal time better safety of public pursuits. For example: By dematerializing processes, statistics can be transmitted quicker and physical “social” contact can be reduced. Accepting digital copies in preference to paper originals, pre-arrival processing, electronic payments, Customs automation, making use of hazard-management techniques, and the cooperation amongst businesses (in the identical usa, and with trading partners), all assist accelerate the tactics of global change. At the identical time, these kinds of measures additionally assist agencies such as Customs, ministry of fitness, bureau of requirements or the border police do an even higher activity at detecting unwanted activities. Our Policy Brief with a ten-point movement plan places it as follows: “Facilitating change and the transport of goods has turn out to be more important than ever, to keep away from logistics barriers that result in shortages of essential components. The concrete measures proposed on this coverage brief assist to facilitate shipping and exchange and to shield the population from COVID-19.” As governments and regional corporations have greater international cooperation and invested in similarly trade facilitation reforms and digitalization during the COVID-19 disaster, the development done should also assist revive international change. It can be vital to evaluate what worked and what didn’t, so that we will lock-inside the progress made at some stage in lockdown.
References

Some Observations on the Impact of COVID-19 on Shipping
Malta Maritime Forum

The problems created through the Covid pandemic to the carriage and distribution of goods stuck anyone together with the important box providers unaware and necessitated the advent of brief term measures so as to safeguard both the coherence of the logistical cycle as well as the economic sustainability of the vendors. The situation that advanced among March and June saw a plummeting of shipment volumes and an unheard of state of affairs of port closures (specifically in China) which left the carriers grappling at situations by no means skilled before and which wished instantaneous answers.

The economic downturn in China as a result of the curtailment in production and exportation had an instantaneous impact on the quantity of cargo available for export from Far East to the relaxation of the arena. As early as March, the UN had already published a take a look at wherein it anticipated that China’s decreased exports value different international locations and their industries over USD 50 billion. The regions most effected in order of priority had been the European Union, the USA, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam.

The recovery in Chinese exports in the course of the summer season months was immediately counterbalanced by means of the drop in demand specifically in Europe due to lockdown measures brought inside the various European nations. Hence the trouble shifted from deliver to call for but the net end result turned into the identical – much less seaborne cargo to be carried.

The effect of this example, particularly inside the Mediterranean, reflected itself in a drop of the volume of shipment handled, estimated in the region of 35% to 40% which changed into specifically as a result of the measures taken via the main line companies to reduce down at the wide variety of voyages with the goal of lowering operating expenses.

The impact of the clean sailings on field delivery changed into very well highlighted in the examine commissioned by using UNCTAD below the heading “Covid 19 and Maritime Transport Impact and Responses”. The under graph reproduced from this have a look at shows the effect of blank sailings at the port of Marsaxlokk (Freeport) Malta, in which the weekly port calls within the first and second quarters of 2020 dropped by 42% and 39% respectively.

The issue of the blank voyage as an financial tool to stem losses gave the favored consequences to the providers who inside the meantime began reporting superb effects however induced top notch economic harm to terminals, hauliers and different provider vendors inside the logistical chain. The software of blank sailings decreased the deliver of slots to be had at a time when exports from the Far East began growing again and this pushed up freight charges because of the constrained space available. According to a report carried inside the Lloyd’s List of 5th October, the Asia-Europe freight charges reached a brand new high which was not experienced in preCovid instances. It is sincerely to be predicted that the container vendors, having learnt to their delight the final results of a disciplined approach, will do their utmost in future to hold this mechanism that is the epitome of the monetary forces of deliver and call for.

The other development which evolved for the duration of the primary half of of this year and which is influencing logistics to a great degree is the shopping on line on a mass level. Lockdown conditions, fear of contagion and different measures adopted through governments to reduce social touch, generated a call for for home shipping provider and this became extended from the food industry to each imaginable purchaser accurate that turned into facilitated through ordering online. This movement of products created a paradigm shift inside the logistics of cargo delivery wherein the online service provider in mixture with courier offerings changed to a positive diploma the freight forwarder and the line agent whose assignment it become to source and e-book cargoes. The online provider providers located themselves in control of a lot quantity of cargo that they attracted the eye of the field providers who had already been viewing them as ability customers. This development has substantial ramifications for the destiny of logistics now not only for the Mediterranean but worldwide because as soon as the consumer gets to grips with the ease of ordering and paying on-line with guaranteed transport within a quick period of time, it will be tough to dissuade the client from this kind of machine and revert to systems which entailed employment of more time to source and at ease transport of goods.

Particularly in the Mediterranean these tendencies can translate themselves into more shortsea intra-European offerings. This development added even more to the fore the idea of inter-modalism as a logistical pipeline to channel shipment among producer and customer. One is to expect cargo to move on speedy way of shipping including trains which link to ports that during flip facilitate services for shortsea rapid ferry vessels. The transport by sea at some point of the whole adventure, in particular on a regional degree, could be significantly challenged by using intermodal answers wherein the ocean performs a part and now not the entire logistics cycle. Such a state of affairs but will bring again to the European dialogue desk the existing bottlenecks that prevent or impediment the short motion of cargoes mainly through ports. The lack of the unmarried window and an effective customs union that could cast off customs obstacles, will restrict the improvement of this intermodal answer because the logistics technique receives bogged down with forms and inefficiencies. Were this development to take its herbal course, intra-European visitors will flourish due to:

  1. The just-in-time buying.
  2. The want to diversify resources of supply to avoid the situations created through Covid in China.

These developments necessitate a functioning infrastructure which includes ports, terminals, vessels, group, forwarders, customs and receiver. These represent hyperlinks inside the deliver chain and it is going without announcing that the malfunction of 1 link jeopardises the power and coherence of the entire chain. Post Covid has to make sure that appropriate protocols are in location to facilitate the right functioning of each link. It is most effective via such an technique that we will look returned at this period and experience that classes had been learnt to preserve impacts of epidemics in future.

The COVID-19 Crisis: A Catalyst to Speed Up the Digital Transformation of Ports
Mustapha Lhamouz, Activities and Operators Supervision Director, Strategy and Regulation Branch, National Ports Agency of Morocco

Moroccan ports have performed a main function in handling the COVID-19 health disaster. In truth, the port zone has validated strong resilience and notable agility by using adapting its numerous operational procedures to the new context, which calls for that fitness measures be taken into account to deal with the pandemic threat. Moroccan ports have consequently persisted to fulfil their role as systems serving the us of a’s overseas alternate, thereby making sure deliver chain continuity with appreciate to strategic merchandise and preserving the channels open for countrywide exports to overseas markets [1].

It is essential to be aware that Moroccan ports represented the only border point that remained in operation after the airports and land borders have been closed during the lockdown.

As a part of the country wide port zone’s efforts to manage this crisis, digitizing port processes and making them paperless has represented a important move that has enabled the world to satisfy the assignment of provider continuity.

With the health crisis, using paperless change to reduce physical interactions has proved crucial and has come to be a key detail of the enterprise continuity plan implemented by way of the National Ports Agency.

The context of the COVID-19 pandemic has therefore revealed the significance of the National Ports Agency’s strategic preference to digitize port tactics in 2008 thru the implementation, together with all stakeholders inside the port surroundings, of a port network device known as PORTNET, which has turn out to be the single-window machine for foreign alternate tactics. Since this community data device was applied, round 50,000 customers have used PORTNET’s offerings and extra than forty port, customs and overseas change procedures had been digitized through this platform; those include vessel arrival notifications, requests for allocation of posts, the hazardous goods listing, import documents, show up declarations, gate passes, inspections, and the access and exit of products.

The direct and oblique outcomes of the COVID-19 fitness disaster have made the port network extra aware about the brought price for port users of speeding up the digitization of new approaches to make sure more fluidity of port traffic and improve the competitiveness of ports.

For the National Ports Agency, which has already been worried in an in depth programme to beautify the virtual transformation of Moroccan ports for several years now, the fitness disaster has served to speed up the implementation of its SMART PORT programme, whose purpose is to achieve “0 paper” ports.

The objective of the SMART PORT programme is to bolster the competitiveness of country wide ports by way of exploiting the opportunities offered by digital generation and new technology in popular.

During the COVID-19 crisis, this programme became adapted to the context and several new services had been set up through the PORTNET single-window gadget, which include:

The method for examining ships’ stopover files, which has been prolonged to the services of the General Directorate for National Security (DGSN) and the Ministry of Health;
Issuing of customs release paperwork, which changed into implemented at the network platform on 4 May 2020;
Orders for related sports (deliver chandling, surveillance, and so on.);
Automatic notification of the advent of goods on the port, plus traceability and tracking;
Digitization of the manner for inquiring for port get right of entry to passes, and so on.
Electronic fee for all forms of port and items inspection offerings.
The Digital Transformation of Ports: A Driving Force for Competitiveness
The COVID-19 health crisis has served as a catalyst for a trend that turned into already well below way and will assist accelerate the virtual transformation to spark a real digital revolution geared closer to the digitization of port procedures.
Digitalization presently represents a essential project for ports the world over and could pave the manner for a real breakthrough inside the port and maritime industry, which has visible few improvements because the field turned into added lower back inside the Nineteen Fifties.
Indeed, consistent with the contemporary document posted by way of the World Bank and the International Association of Ports and Harbors (IAPH), digitalization is critical if ports are to recover successfully from the COVID-19 disaster and correctly prepare for future crises. [2] According to this file, we’re now definitively getting into a brand new generation in which digitalization could be a port’s key thing for achievement.

Thus, the yr 2020 constitutes a historical turning factor, because it allowed the maritime and port digitalization process to gather speed.

In addition to digitalization of data flows among the various stakeholders inside the port ecosystem, a flood of latest innovations is being applied in several ports, which can be searching for to take advantage of the modern technology, inclusive of the Internet of Things (IoT), blockchain and 5G, to plot new, “disruptive” approaches of wearing out approaches.

Several projects of this kind were released, together with the advent of a blockchain platform (Maersk), implementation of a clever bollard (Port of Rotterdam) and testing of self sustaining vessels.

At country wide level, and inside the same spirit, in December 2020, the National Ports Agency announced the primary Smart Port Challenge in Morocco and Africa within the shape of a wholly online hackathon designed to encourage businesses, begin-u.S.A.And universities in Morocco and abroad to provide progressive solutions to cope with numerous port problems in regions which include digital payment, power performance, port infrastructure management, port protection and environmental protection.

This event, which completed at the quit of January 2021, benefited from the participation of more than 500 researchers, specialists, begin-americaand professionals from extra than 10 international locations and resulted in the submission of greater than 70 projects.

Through this new innovation-based network technique, the National Ports Agency intends to enhance the overall performance and competitiveness of country wide ports by coordinating the moves of the diverse stakeholders a good way to providing innovative answers to major port challenges.

The Digital Transformation of Ports: Facilitating Regional Trade
Advances which includes the digital transformation of ports and making port tactics paperless at the moment are paving the manner for extra nearby collaboration geared toward facilitating change.

Indeed, optimization of the worldwide logistics chain calls for that port ecosystems are connected at local level through the implementation of a facts alternate device among the one-of-a-kind port network structures to increase the efficiency of port transit through supplying real-time data to all overseas exchange stakeholders.

Emerging new technology (blockchain, IoT, and many others.) will actually serve to reinforce this concept of sharing key trade facts at local degree, in particular with the aid of facilitating the purchase and trade of records for the duration of the global supply chain.

Notes

Chapter 6: Air Transport
Air delivery has been one of the sectors maximum laid low with the COVID-19 disaster, particularly in phrases of passenger transport. Airlines and airports represent the primary line of these affected, accompanied by means of all offerings and businesses linked to traveler pastime, among others. In addition to the direct effect of the discount inside the range of flights, there’s the loss of passenger self assurance, which does not augur nicely for a speedy healing of the sector. All of that is forcing airport managers and operators to mirror at the adoption of latest measures to obtain user safety and comfort.

But what a ways-achieving measures would facilitate the healing of air delivery? Would the outlet up of markets and the liberalisation of bilateral air delivery agreements be a degree to be taken under consideration for possible recuperation? In this recognize, the Mediterranean region has several fronts open to it. On the only hand, there are the feasible Euro-Mediterranean air services agreements. On the opposite, the Single African Air Transport Market (SAATM). These procedures should be primarily based at the harmonisation of air transport regulations, which will attain green implementation.

Air Transport within the Post-COVID Era
Habib Mekki, General Director of Civil Aviation. Tunisia’s Ministry of Transport and Logistics

The COVID-19 pandemic can be the greatest undertaking the global aviation industry will ever face. The outcomes are being felt throughout the ecosystem, together with airways, airports and air navigation bodies.

Recent estimates with the aid of the International Civil Aviation Organization suggest that the 2020-21 air traffic recession will take one of the following shapes:

V-shaped: the normal shape for a recession; a short period of sharp financial decline followed by using a short/easy recovery.
U-shaped: prolonged contraction and muted recovery to fashion line growth.
L-formed (depression): long-term downturn in monetary activity; a steep drop followed by means of a flat line with the opportunity of not returning to trend line increase.
W-shaped: a double-dip recession which include a “down-up-down-up” pattern earlier than complete healing.
Nike-swoosh-fashioned: a sharp rebound that speedy flattens.
With the overall severity and length of the COVID-19 pandemic still uncertain, 4 special healing paths under two indicative scenarios had been advanced:

Baseline: counterfactual state of affairs wherein the COVID-19 pandemic never passed off, i.E. As in the beginning deliberate or commercial enterprise as regular.
Scenario 1: exclusive paths (similar to Nike-swooshand Wshaped).
International
Path 1: Smooth capability re
covery thru rebound of pent-up demand, but at a diminishing rate of growth.
Path 1a: Smooth capability restoration before everything, observed through a downturn due to over-capacity.
Domestic
Path 1: Swift capacity rebound driven by using pent-up call for however at a diminishing charge of boom.
Path 1a: Smooth capability recovery at the start, accompanied via a downturn due to over-ability.
Scenario 2: distinct paths (similar to Uand L-fashioned).
International
Path 2: Return to trend increase quickens after sluggish development of potential recuperation.
Path 2a: Capacity recuperation at a lowering pace due to respite and continuous call for slump.
Domestic
Path 2: Gradual potential restoration observed by using elevated increase.
Path 2a: Capacity restoration at a reducing pace due to gradual demand growth.
On this foundation, the International Civil Aviation Organization published the provisional consequences for 2020 compared to 2019, which show a 49.5% reduction in seating capability and a reduction of 2.69 billion passengers international (i.E. A 60% discount). Moreover, schedule carriers recorded losses of 369.7 billion USD.

According to the agency, this downward trend is ready to maintain for the duration of the first half of of 2021, as compared to 2019 tiers, with at least a forty two.1% reduction in seats provided through airways, 1.1 billion fewer passengers (i.E. A 50% discount) and sales losses of up to 156 billion USD for airlines.

Tunisia has no longer been spared the results of this situation; air visitors to and from Tunisian airports has been hit tough, with a vast drop in 2020 (as compared to the same length in 2019) of seventy five.Five% for passenger visitors, 64.8% for plane motion and 14.4% for cargo tonnage.

This decline is a herbal result of the suspension of business passenger site visitors to and from Tunisian airports from mid-March till 27 June 2020. During this period, visitors changed into limited to repatriations, scientific and humanitarian operations and load.

Commercial site visitors in Tunisia resumed on 27 June 2020. The technique changed into completed carefully, step by step and, most significantly, according with a health protocol that become evolved with the aid of the Ministry of Transport and Logistics, in coordination with the Ministry of Health, and that took account of guidelines issued via the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and the guidelines of the European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and Airports Council International (ACI).

This protocol outlines a sequence of requirements and recommendations for airport operators, aircraft operators and other relevant stakeholders and stipulates that they need to coordinate their movements with the fitness government and nearby airport facilitation committees that allows you to reaching effective hazard mitigation and ensuring compliance with countrywide public health requirements.

Currently, folks who want to go to Tunisia by using aircraft need to be in ownership of a certificates that indicates a terrible RT-PCR take a look at end result and then go through a 14-day quarantine period, although there are a few exceptions. Nevertheless, inspite of this fitness protocol and all of the precautionary measures required of passengers, airways and airports, demand for air delivery cannot boom and preserve growing except passenger self assurance is restored.

It is consequently crucial to reassure passengers who are worried approximately catching the virus at some point of air travel and persuade them that the threat of being inflamed on the airport or on board the aircraft is minimal.

In fact, airports are genuinely clean, safe locations; all passengers must wear a masks at take a look at-in, even as boarding, in the course of the flight and when disembarking. Physical distancing of as a minimum 1 metre at take a look at-in desks and even as boarding is mandatory. Temperature screening is likewise obligatory before entering the terminal, and body temperature is checked once more prior to boarding. Disinfection and cleansing are performed constantly and hydroalcoholic gel dispensers are to be had anywhere.

Moreover, planes are very safe locations with appreciate to COVID-19 transmission, for the reason that mask sporting is obligatory, the cabin air is renewed each two to 3 mins and the cabin is equipped with HEPA particle filters, which absorb ninety nine.Nine% of debris and are equal to those utilized in working theatres. This renewal ensures that the air on board is wholesome.

Insurance and precautionary measures might be taken into consideration once a vaccine is available. These should include making it compulsory for passengers to have the COVID-19 vaccine before boarding and putting in place a health passport (international vaccination report).

Several international businesses are presently working on this. The International Civil Aviation Organization posted the second one version of its “Take-off” pointers on Revolutionary Organization 17 November 2020: Guidance for Air Travel Through the COVID-19 Public Health Crisis (CART II), which incorporates extra suggestions and guidance in light of recent trends referring to the COVID-19 crisis and supplements the tips covered in CART I, posted in June 2020.

All countries now face a brand new challenge and must put into effect a submit-Covid air transport healing plan based totally on innovation, digitization and the use of technologies inclusive of virtual credentials and synthetic intelligence, which should play a key position within the restart and recovery of air transport after the crisis and steer it onto the maximum sustainable direction feasible.

Countries ought to additionally proportion information, know-how and suitable practices based in the main on innovative techniques and technology to restore passenger confidence in air transport.

The liberalization of air offerings, whether inside Africa (SAATM) or with the European Union, have to make allowances for the problems experienced by airlines following the COVID-19 crisis and should be based totally on honest opposition to hold the monetary sustainability of airlines and avoid further eroding their results, which have already been negatively suffering from the COVID-19 disaster.

In conclusion, the COVID-19 pandemic is not most effective a health crisis, but additionally an economic, social and humanitarian crisis. Given the dramatic global monetary and social effect it has triggered, the aviation machine now stands at the verge of fast transformation.

Admittedly, the light at the end of the tunnel isn’t always yet seen, but this pandemic will someday come to an stop and the arena of air delivery will placed the most serious disaster in its records in the back of it.

Air Transport Development, the Tool to Achieve Good Harvest Seasons: How Aviation Can Play a Key Role in the Prosperity of a Post-COVID-19 Mediterranean
Ignacio Biosca, Head of International Relations, Airport Marketing and Airlines Assistance, AENA

It is tough to put in writing a piece of writing on journey and tourism these days. We are only some weeks from completing 2020, the yr wherein tour stopped. In the midst of COVID-19, airlines and airports struggle to continue to exist within the toughest crisis that the air delivery industry has visible in its complete records. Yet, there may be consensus that, as soon as the pandemic is controlled, travel and tourism will resume, and we are able to again be capable of revel in such an critical thing of our lives, and of route, of our economies.

If we move lower back to 2019, we will get an concept of the measurement of air delivery between international locations within the Mediterranean place. The seats put on sale via airlines that flew across the world among points of the vicinity become round 130 million in 2019. This is genuinely no longer a small determine.

How was this determine completed? We can be certain that the liberalization manner that lets in for open markets, wherein airways make choices on where to fly based at the profitability of the routes they function, has played a key function. In this feel, the coverage promoted with the aid of the European Union to sign open skies agreements with its neighbouring international locations, has proved to be extremely fruitful.

The Common Aviation Area, designed to allow a sluggish establishing of the market between the EU and its neighbours, has offered possibilities for airways and a wider preference for passengers. At the equal time, it has allowed a regulatory convergence on protection, safety, environmental and other areas of the industry.

A good instance of the efficiency of this policy is the settlement signed among the EU and Morocco in 2006. The range of passengers that flew between Spain and Morocco, as a reference, grew greater than 50% in simplest twelve months, and in 2019, it turned into 4 instances better than that of 2006. Other agreements have been signed in view that then with Jordan and Israel, and negotiations are on-going with Lebanon and Tunisia. If the Common Aviation Area reached its goals, it can embody as much as 50-55 states and a complete population of one billion population. The opportunity this brings for the Mediterranean region needs to be nicely valued through the air transport and tourism stakeholders and by coverage makers.

This opportunity may additionally appear simply an phantasm in 2020, while the complete international has almost stopped, and tour and tourism are a ways from being a priority. Health government are focused in controlling the pandemic and restrictions in mobility are an crucial part of the approach to fight against it. In truth, in the Mediterranean location, the 130 million seats stated before, had been reduced by means of extra than 60% in 2020, and given the extraordinarily low load elements skilled this yr, we will estimate that passengers are simplest round 20% of those in 2019. However, it isn’t an illusion.

Air delivery is a key detail for the improvement of the areas it serves. For each million passengers, the look at accomplished by Intervistas for ACI Europe estimates that round 950 direct jobs are created [1], and if we depend the oblique and triggered ones, this discern can without difficulty be three instances higher. The evaluation also discovered that every 10% growth in connectivity became associated with an growth in GDP in line with capita of 0.Five%. Air shipping is a clean catalyst for monetary increase. But, despite the fact that being extremely critical, now not most effective the economy counts. Air shipping also ties cultural bonds and brings information among areas and societies, which is the foundation of a peaceful and sustainable development, with the direct impact this has inside the lives of their residents. Only with a right and balanced policy that regularly opens the marketplace, we can seed the flowers that in the end will allow us to harvest the fruit of a evolved and peaceful Mediterranean region.

But, what are those seeds? Where can we get them? What are the drivers for boom and prosperity in our area in a put up COVID-19 era? Being from the Mediterranean, I am positive that all of us sense familiar with the basic substances of our historical agricultural culture. Wheat, grapevine, olives. Allow me to use this metaphor to describe how we will use the air shipping zone to expand our land.

First, we want a fertile land. In our quarter, a fertile land way an attractive destination. No one doubts that the Mediterranean, from Greece or Turkey to Spain, from Croatia or Albania to Morocco or Egypt, and including all of the relaxation of the nations in the area, is a privileged one. Mild climate, exquisite cultural web sites that display the birth of human civilization, and a wealthy gastronomy, are the vital factors of a highly attractive vacation spot. We do now not only have an incredibly fertile land, however additionally the right seeds geared up to be planted. However, we have work to do. We can not simply sit and wait that this fertile land gives us the fruit it is able to expand. We should plough the land. Investment in infrastructure, right and rate-competitive resorts, and excessive safety and security standards, are vital to build a destination to which passengers and vacationers are inclined to travel. And, green airports, from the operational and monetary factors of view for the airlines. All these infrastructure and conditions mixed permit for the next step: to put together the soil with mineral and nutrients.

Once we’ve the land in the right conditions, it’s far necessary to offer the ok nutrients and to water the soil. In the air transport sector, the mixture of nutrients and water comes in the form of an open marketplace. Open skies agreements permit airlines to correctly expand their pastime in a healthful and sustainable manner. As noted earlier than, the coverage the European Union fosters in its Common Aviation Area, permits for market beginning and regulatory convergence, which offers self belief to airways to explore and broaden new routes. New routes that allow passengers to fly and find out locations, with the correspondent gain for the areas they visit.

With our fertile land, the seeds properly planted, and the nutrients and water of an open marketplace, we are able to be equipped to acquire the consequences of the harvest and to take them to the market.

As in any market, in the air delivery zone, you need to promote your product. Airports and locations play a key position in “selling the vacation spot” to airways and excursion operators. The nice way to do it is with the aid of joining efforts and coordinating messages. Airport operators and tourism government, both, have the right portions of facts to convince an airline, or a excursion operator, that if they fly to their region, the result from the economic factor of view might be wonderful. And no longer only fantastic, but additionally more profitable than opportunity options. A way to paintings together is with the aid of creating the so-referred to as “Route Development Committees” (RDC). In these Committees, tourism government, city councils, chambers of commerce and airports, each one inside the region in their competence, provide market records, promoting and incentives in a joint bundle that allows the choice-making manner via the airlines. The RDC created in Barcelona is a superb instance and a reference of this type of method.

Aviation activities like Routes, or Tourism ones like the World Travel Market or Fitur, are the right ones for these RDCs to satisfy with airlines and provide the goods of their harvest. They do no longer differentiate an excessive amount of from the historic markets wherein bread, wine or olive oil were offered in the exceptional cities of the Mediterranean shore. Market intelligence with personalized and special enterprise cases, incentives and promotion proposals are explained in unique and exchanged with the community developers of the airlines, to finally be able to have fun the outlet of a brand new course. Patience and consistency also are crucial factors of this market, because the decision-making manner inside the air shipping zone can take lengthy periods. Not too one of a kind from the sensible strategy of the farmers in our international locations.

Nevertheless, the plan, as defined earlier than, is simple to draft, however difficult to attain. We have extraordinarily relevant challenges to overcome. The economic system inside the Mediterranean vicinity, as inside the rest of the sector, could be seriously damaged by way of COVID-19. To what volume the evolution of the pandemic will improve with the vaccines that have come to be available from early 2021, and the healing pace of the economy, stays to be visible. Health experts agree that during 2021 the aggregate of the vaccination method, the improvement of latest and greater correct checks, the invention of an early treatment and the herbal evolution of the virus will result in a sizable decrease of the pandemic. On the alternative hand, we’ve got seen that once mobility regulations are lifted, call for for journey recovers exceptionally fast. It is human nature. We all want to be close to our liked ones, and to revel in some days below the sun and close to the ocean. And all of us want to realize more of our historical culture, the pyramids, the amphitheatres, the tune, the architecture, the gastronomy… We have masses of this in the Mediterranean. Therefore, tour and tourism will recover; there’s no question about it.

In any case, it’s far authentic that COVID-19 will alternate the sector, even once the pandemic is managed. We must be aware about the challenges and analyze the training that it has introduced. Sustainability is already, but it’ll be even greater within the destiny, the spine of any approach inside the air shipping industry. This is in particular authentic inside the Mediterranean, a sea that is struggling the consequences of weather exchange and CO2 emissions, with its coral and posidonia disappearing, or the invading tropical species colonizing our coasts. Therefore, the usage of Sustainable Aviation Fuels and hydrogen, and a extra green air navigation design are key elements to attain the commitment in the direction of net 0 CO2 emissions in European aviation in 2050. Aviation, inside the future, will be sustainable or it’ll no longer be.

Another applicable venture inside the roadmap to expand the vicinity is the digitalization method. Certainly, the sector is already virtual. Our smartphones can every day do increasingly things, and the decision to buy a plane price tag or to make a resort reservation after having searched for the activities, or the first-rate of the seashores at a selected destination, is not an exception. Hotels, natural parks, ancient web sites, scuba diving lodges, museums, they all shape a part of the potential revel in of a visitor. To make this capability experience in a real one, sarcastically, they ought to be digital.

On the other hand, in the market that the aviation industry is, it is crucial to prepare the commercial enterprise instances with the maximum correct and personalized statistics possible, to permit the airways make the right decisions. Internet journey searching equipment, credit score cards utilization, mobile phones roaming are only a few examples of the type of facts the airways need to eventually be in a role to determine the hole of a new direction. Another example of ways important it’s far to be counted with latest virtual tools.

Finally, safety and safety are elements without which tour and tourism absolutely do now not exist. Unfortunately, we’re experiencing it nowadays. The journey enterprise has already very annoying safety and security standards in region and is constantly adapting them to new demanding situations. Safety, with all its distinct perspectives, and now specifically the fitness related one, is a prerequisite for any journey. The same happens with security. We are aware of how fragile call for to a vacation spot may be if security isn’t always assured. Therefore, to allocate the good enough sources to safety and safety is an investment that can not be underestimated to obtain the anticipated return by using travel demand. And after COVID-19 fitness protection related measures all through flights and at airports, or later in lodge, accommodations, theatres or museums, have turn out to be a priority to make certain a safe journey experience. It is not hard to foresee that they will stay inside the future.

Let me finish these strains by means of saying that long haul traffic could be more hard in the years yet to come. Passengers will be seeking out shorter journeys to locations in which it may be less difficult to get back domestic if there was the need to. In this environment, the Mediterranean region has an opportunity to provide in the area, and within the whole of Europe, all its ability.

The Common Aviation Area the EU promotes, with its commonplace skies agreements, and its regulatory harmonization that brings reality for passengers and airways, can be the path towards a sustainable improvement of the Mediterranean, and one of the gear to bolster the links among the countries that proportion this kind of privileged location. Following this path, I am convinced that earlier than later, we will see the ones 130 Million seats provided once more for visitors to go to their beloved ones, or to enrich themselves by discovering a exclusive way of life. Moreover, I am satisfied that this determine can develop considerably with the fine results it approach for the roles and economies, and consequently for the humans, of the entire Mediterranean location.

There is not anything extra not unusual and toward us inside the Mediterranean than bread, wine and olive oil. Let us work collectively as though we had been farmers to be able to acquire the harvest our land gives.

Notes

COVID-19, An Opportunity for African Airports to Embrace Technology
and Innovation
Ali Tounsi, Secretary General, Airports Council International (ACI) Africa

The Need to Redefine the Passenger Journey Experience
It can not be over-emphasized enough that the air travel enterprise is facing one of the maximum challenging times of its lifestyles. In addition to the catastrophic financial consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on the industry, the confidence loved through guests before the disaster has eroded considerably seeing that airports and airlines have been appeared as one of the vectors of transmission of the virus throughout borders.

Since the outbreak of the pandemic and in a bid to maintaining the continuity of air offerings all through border closures for you to perform critical humanitarian, evacuation and cargo operations, airports all around the global, including in Africa, have had no desire but to hastily rethink their regular processes to maintain passengers, group and staff secure, and this protected the continuous disinfection of all touchpoints, sporting of suitable face coverings, bodily distancing, COVID19 trying out and the reinforcement of touchless technologies where available. These new protocols introduced gradually have slowly been reshaping the normality we were all used to inside the air travel industry. Indeed, further to protection and security, a healthy air journey enjoy has now become a top precedence for passengers. Whether they are touring for commercial enterprise or entertainment, locally or across the world, passengers now opt to choose airports that prioritize their nicely-being over different tour concerns.

In August/September 2020, Airports Council International (ACI) carried out a look at amongst four,100 travellers in 30 nations global with the main targets to assess the velocity at which guests are probable to go back to airports, to perceive the main factors influencing the rate of restoration, to evaluate the evolution of their conduct in addition to to specify passengers’ perceptions and expectations toward the passenger adventure (ACI, 2020). The exact information is that 97% of respondents, who travelled in 2019, intend to journey once more in the future, with 61% of respondents from the Africa area confirming, on the time of the survey, their willingness to travel by the stop of this 12 months itself (ACI, 2020). However, the study also revealed that 20% of respondents had been now not assured that airports and airlines had been supplying a safe surroundings, and those that had been planning to journey have been anticipating unique measures to be implemented via airports (ACI, 2020). The maximum anticipated degree was the mandatory use of mask for all passengers and airport workforce, as confirmed by forty eight% of all respondents, accompanied by using a 28% of respondents for COVID-19 test previous to their adventure, hand sanitizing stations (28% of respondents), and curiously, 27% of respondents looking ahead for a contactless revel in (ACI, 2020).

Therefore, however the latest encouraging information of the implementation of a number of probably a success vaccines in opposition to the COVID-19 virus, the latter has alas left an indelible print in the minds and habits of maximum passengers, and to such an volume, that their normal journey expectancies can also have been permanently redefined.

As the airport enterprise now starts offevolved to devise for a sustainable restoration after a sluggish restart over the past few months, it will likely be even greater vital for airports to concentrate, apprehend, and reply to the converting desires and expectancies of the touring public. Indeed, passengers will clearly count on to be able to clear airport formalities along with protection, customs and immigration unexpectedly, avoiding crowds and long queues, and to have more choices approximately how they will interact with airways, airports and border manage authorities. This new journey attitude was already an expectation of the present day era of travellers, however it’s far probable that this alteration will be extended now with the COVID-19 pandemic. Addressing and tracking the new drivers of delight in the redesign or new design of the passenger journey through airports might be the key to with a bit of luck reassuring passengers approximately the safety of air journey.

Technology and Innovation to Play a Centre Stage in Boosting Passenger Confidence
The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on air travel absolutely presents airports with a whole lot of challenges and complexities however additionally with a completely unique possibility to assume strategically and undertake a scientific approach to information, evaluating and adapting to the changing expectations of passengers for a safe, at ease and hygienic air travel enjoy.

Technology and automation is certain to play a crucial function and artificial intelligence will provide a great platform to automate obligations and boom efficiency even as enhancing protection and security and ensuring lower margin of mistakes, if implemented successfully.

The need for structures and procedures at airports to deal with the new challenges posed with the aid of the COVID-19 disaster within the facilitation of passengers and coping with of cargo and luggage is evident. Based at the training learnt from this crisis and in a bid to improving its enterprise continuity resilience in any respect degrees, the industry is decided to take the lead in many regions geared toward addressing public fitness-related problems, dealing with queues and crowds, and optimizing use of sources through adopting automation and advanced technologies, facilitating facts alternate and embracing virtual solutions along with biometric recognition generation.

There are numbers of regions where substantial opportunities exist inside the manipulate of national authorities to foster the creation of era and innovation, inclusive of enabling quicker clearance of passengers by border manipulate corporations, promoting adoption of automated and digital processing through customs, and simplifying inspection factors during the passenger journey at airports. In a nutshell, this crisis need to genuinely be appeared as the catalyst for alternate to hastily include technology and innovation in passenger processing inside the airport industry, and evaluation and adapt all the national regulatory frameworks needed to help the alternate.

Growing Appeal for Touchless and Remote Processes
The current crisis has highlighted the want for extra use of cell and automated solutions, which include touchless self-carrier and biometrics, and the extra use of facts, inclusive of health records, to permit seamless and secure air travel.

Digital transformation will play a more distinguished function in making sure that performance, protection and client experience are all addressed at passenger touchpoints which includes: check-in, selfservice bag drops, protection checkpoint, border manage and boarding gates, and retail and obligation-loose outlets, amongst others. Touchless procedures will undoubtedly be an critical part of the destiny of air journey. Whilst this is not a brand new idea, having be around for some years now and forming the spine of ACI’s imaginative and prescient for the destiny of journey, this pandemic has really elevated its adoption. Many airports and airways have already became to touchless kiosks or virtual/cell processing to replace traditional test-in and bag drop features.

The accelerated use of virtual identification, and probably coupled with some health statistics, to offer clearance for passengers to tour, is likely to benefit a great deal momentum. In the short term, this will be evidence of COVID-19 take a look at effects, and inside the long run evidence of vaccination towards COVID-19.

Some passenger tactics may even take region off-airport before the start of the journey so that less face-to-face touch is needed. For instance, take a look at-in and bag drop techniques may additionally move largely off-airport, to resorts and conference centres, and services will more commonly encompass bag select-up and shipping. A greater and smarter integration with different transit structures is also predicted as a way to allow a extra seamless and touchless journey.

These tactics will put off or substantially lessen the want for physical change of travel files between body of workers and passengers. It may additionally velocity the overall passenger manner, with the gain of better fitness protection, and resulting in decreased queuing and other technique efficiencies that’s an awful lot wanted at a time while sales are significantly impacted.

The Situation at African Airports
Africa, the second-largest and 2nd-maximum populous continent, is alas still lagging in the back of when it comes to the creation and use of generation in turning in new and revolutionary passenger processing and advanced consumer enjoy at airports.

This cutting-edge country is specially due to boundaries posed with the aid of the modern-day complexity of introducing digitalisation in airport strategies, facts ownership troubles, loss of stakeholders’ collaboration, regulatory obstacles to permit fully on line or cellular techniques and investment priorities now not always geared in the direction of era and innovation. For instance, maximum African international locations currently do no longer have biometric passports or country wide identification cards which allow the chips in the ones files to store the biometric data passengers, which is the primary most important requirement to undoubtedly identifying a passenger in the journey method and therefore permit for contactless experience. Data ownership is also a big venture in Africa with governments claiming the only ownership and not permitting 0.33 parties to access, verify or use biometric records.

Nevertheless, during the last years, a few nations in Africa, which include South Africa, Morocco and Ghana, have began to introduce technology to improve the general passenger enjoy, mainly with self-service and automated processes. Lanseria International Airport in South Africa is up to now the most effective airport at the continent with self-bag drop facilities. The room for self-carrier and automation increase is big on the continent, and with the COVID-19 pandemic, there’s an possibility for all African airports, no matter size, to embrace this generation as it will regularly and confidently assist to embark on the contactless passenger adventure revel in. Addis Ababa Bole International Airport of Ethiopia has certainly understood this vision and is presently integrating this technology at its new airport.

Financial Implications Versus Long Term Investment
It is crucial that inside the process of introducing a contactless enjoy at airports, the entire journey should be redesigned to discover all of the touchpoints that may be made contactless and this could be executed thru a adventure mapping exercise deliberating the special passenger profiles, putting clear targets and desires, and matching the technology so one can suit every and each procedure. It is important to undergo in thoughts that there may be no “one length suits all”. There is continually a solution that suits each finances and each process.

Finance will certainly be an issue within the present day checking out times for the airport industry, however answers applied now will bring enormous go back on investment inside the long term. Innovation does not ought to imply luxurious generation as better use of statistics for green operations, and a flow to cloud-based computing may be lowhanging fruit to shop charges in the short and long term. For example, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the cargo industry has tested this bendy approach and resilience while vast potential constraints resulted from the imposed passenger journey regulations. A harmonized technique to alter procedures, e.G. Loading cargo on plane and shifting to paperless operations, overcame a few significant challenges in exceedingly brief time scales. The same approach need to now be used in different regions of airport operations.

The Future of Air Travel as Envisioned with the aid of the NEXTT Initiative
New Experience Travel Technologies (NEXTT) is a joint initiative of Airports Council International (ACI) and International Air Transport Association (IATA). NEXTT encapsulates the shared vision of both associations for the future of tour encompassing the entire adventure from domestic to stop destination with the aid of that specialize in 3 standards for passengers, bags, shipment and plane operations, particularly: (i) offairport activities, (ii) superior processing era inclusive of robotics and biometrics, and (iii) interactive selection-making (NEXTT, 2020).

The NEXTT imaginative and prescient used to remain a protracted-term focus at the destiny of travel for many airfields, with its implementation taken into consideration in a phased manner. However, with the COVID-19 pandemic, the situation is altogether distinct and the adoption of those standards has turn out to be extraordinarily applicable today and will clearly constitute the most relevant framework for airports inclined to instil performance of their approaches even as on the equal time complying with the needs of passengers for a safe, relaxed and healthy air travel enjoy.

Pre-COVID-19, NEXTT’s imaginative and prescient of offairport activities changed into that passengers would have complete manage in their journey inside the comfort in their home prior to achieving the airport by supplying them with a number of alternatives regarding on line or mobile take a look at-in methods, off-airport baggage or shipment drop-off, travel authorisations and customs tactics to be managed digitally, and online shopping and reserving of ancillary airport services, among others.

These off-airport options, as envisaged by means of NEXTT, are extraordinarily applicable now in the course of this ongoing disaster to lessen contact and crowding at airports, to assist physical distancing and to alleviate on-website potential airport constraints, and will clearly come to be even extra relevant inside the put up-pandemic world. In addition, with fitness announcement being part and parcel of the mandatory border manipulate formalities, the concept of a passenger’s virtual pockets, with a purpose to consist of all health-related records which include COVID-19 check and vaccination, is bound to shape an vital a part of the off-airport passenger processing technique in the future.

Pre-COVID-19, NEXTT’s vision of advanced processing associated with using generation for identification functions, automation and robotics to create a seamless, at ease and harmonised method for passengers and baggage handling at numerous computerized touchpoints at airports, viz. File check at access, take a look at-in, self-carrier bag drops, get admission to to security checkpoints, border control and boarding.

In the put up-pandemic global, the want for contactless processing will become an even stronger advice, if now not a norm within the long term, as evidenced through the ICAO Council Aviation Recovery Taskforce (CART) Report and Recovery Guidelines released at some stage in the crisis, which now recommends the accelerated use of era to facilitate contactless processing of passengers at numerous stages in their adventure (ICAO, 2020). Thus, the passenger enjoy on the airport will contain the biometric verification of identity and health reputation at on foot pace for a very uninterrupted and touchless adventure. Passenger touchpoints, consisting of kiosks and different procedure factors, might be touchless, activated via biometric popularity, which include voice or movement, and could the provide the possibility to seamlessly have interaction with cellular technology.

Similarly, electronic bag tags will provide luggage with a virtual identification and could help in decreasing passenger and team of workers touchpoints to tag baggage, that is consistent with the contactless journey enjoy envisaged for the duration of and submit-COVID-19 disaster.

The third concept of NEXTT, i.E. Interactive decision-making, is quite forward searching in terms of manage and personalisation of the travel revel in of passengers via a better communique and coordination of records assets. Airports might enjoy enhanced understanding of the needs in their passengers because of the collaboration supplied with open Application Programming Interface (API) platforms. On the opposite hand, tracking technologies and situational consciousness would boom the reactivity of passengers to adjustments made in the course of their tour adventure.

During the cutting-edge crisis and in a postCOVID-19 global, the need for accurate, relevant and up-to-date statistics on travel necessities and authorizations, especially with respect to fitness protocols, has all its pertinence for passengers. For airports, superior records on passengers and on their precise wishes may even come to be key in awaiting capability troubles and adjusting the procedures and assets allocation to enable a pleasing and seamless passenger adventure enjoy through the airport. Solutions, together with cell apps and trade of statistics through APIs, may be crucial to enable passengers to navigate via their trips.

The Way Forward
Although short-time period boom projections have dramatically changed, the need to provide immediately answers required to mitigate COVID-19 dangers when traveling, and to improve efficiency for airports and airways stay key drivers of innovation and era.

Around the sector, generation, via contactless solutions, selfservice and automatic processes, and biometrics, is steadily taking the centre degree in supporting both airports and airways overcome the demanding situations of the brand new truth of air journey. While the global disaster has placed air shipping enterprise boom goals on keep, it has also provided an possibility for significant innovation and transformation to be elevated, a positive funding for the future.

In the modern-day context, where the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted heavily on air journey, passenger accept as true with and airport operations, the ideas, on which NEXTT rest, are honestly the manner forward to reaching the paradigm shift inside the passenger adventure experience.

For African airports, the time is opportune to with a bit of luck embody generation and innovation that allows you to improve, as soon as for all, on the efficiency of tactics in any respect degrees while guaranteeing passengers with a secure, cozy, wholesome and harmonised air travel enjoy within and out of Africa.

References

A Broad Harmonisation of Regulations is the Indispensable Corollary of a Sustainable Liberalisation of Air Transport
Olivier Meynot, Head of missions at the Directorate General of Civil Aviation in France European Air Transport Agreements

If we want to guarantee sustainable recuperation and the improvement of air delivery within the Western Mediterranean, the mere liberalization of visitors rights is not enough: to benefit all air delivery stakeholders and users, the creation of a single aviation market inside the Western Mediterranean need to be underpinned by means of harmonization of the guidelines relevant to air delivery.

Liberalization isn’t always an end in itself, however rather serves as a tool to aid connectivity and the financial system and develop nearer ties between countries. The professional release of the Single African Air Transport Market (SAATM) with the aid of the African Union (AU) in January 2018 changed into not merely a step to restore the African air shipping liberalization procedure initiated in 1999 with the Yamoussoukro Decision; it represented a key tool to supply on Agenda 2063, in conjunction with the alternative Agenda 2063 flagship tasks, in particular the African Continental Free Trade Area (which become signed by means of forty four African nations in March 2018), the African Union Passport or the unfastened motion of humans (the Protocol to the Treaty Establishing the African Economic Community Relating to Free Movement of Persons, Right of Residence and Right of Establishment changed into followed in January 2018).

However, to make certain that the advantages of air transport liberalization are highest quality and sustainable, liberalization ought to shape a part of a sluggish, complete technique; the opening of aviation markets between nations in the Western Mediterranean need to be executed in ranges and be supported in parallel by using the harmonization of the guidelines applicable to air transport. The latter ensures uniform tour situations for passengers and shippers (freight transport) and ensures excessive tiers of aviation safety and security; furthermore, it gives operators with a degree playing field, in phrases of competition, and value-effective offerings such as the ones relating to air navigation.

This gradual, comprehensive technique became followed by way of the European Union inside the 1990s and, greater these days, by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), whose unmarried aviation market made its first look some 15 years in the past. The advent of a few form of single air delivery market for the Western Mediterranean can be the final results of a similar integrative technique concerning the ten countries involved. However, the instantaneous assignment is to guide an air delivery quarter that has been devastated through the health disaster.

The Devastating Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Air Transport Sector
The air transport sector, which has gone through steady boom for years and had an untroubled outlook over the coming a long time consistent with forecasters, is facing an remarkable shock because of the COVID-19 pandemic and is not expected to return to the 2019 degree of pastime till 2024 at the very earliest.

At its 76th General Meeting held on 24 November 2020, the International Air Transport Association (IATA), which represented 290 airlines, up to date its forecasts regarding the effect of the disaster. The figures for 2020 are superb: passengers numbers are down by 66% compared to 2019, airways are predicted to generate just 328 billion US greenbacks, down via 60.9% in comparison to the previous year (838 billion), airline losses at the moment are predicted at 118.5 billion US dollars, downgraded from June’s estimate of a “mere” eighty four.3 billion, airline debts have expanded from 430 billion US greenbacks in 2019 to 651 billion in 2020, and so on.

The outlook for airports is equally grim. According to the Airports Council International Europe (ACI Europe), which represents almost 500 airports in forty six European international locations, visitors on 15 November become already down by using 1.5 billion passengers as compared to 2019 tiers. Under these situations, ACI Europe estimates that greater than a hundred ninety airports run the chance of insolvency. In phrases of restoration preparations, it is exercising excessive caution out of fear of lasting modifications in travel behavior.

Despite the truth that the possibility of an effective vaccine has revived airline inventory costs, IATA is predicting a difficult 2021, with losses expected at 38.7 billion US dollars. It does not anticipate air visitors to return to 2019 degrees until 2024 and, even then, simplest if positive conditions are fulfilled, mainly with admire to the vaccine’s effectiveness.

Against this backdrop, the hole up of markets between the countries of the Western Mediterranean may want to constitute a facilitator for relaunching air delivery for passengers and goods in this vicinity. In the long run, the advent of a single aviation market have to involve an extra measurement: regulatory convergence is the simplest way to guarantee the harmonious, sustainable, and safe development of air transport. This calls for a slow, complete method, just like that used to assemble the single European air delivery marketplace and put in force common air areas with the neighbouring countries of the European Union created through unique European air agreements.

A Gradual, Comprehensive Approach: The Example of the Construction of the Single European Air Transport Market
The internal marketplace of the European Union, which comprises the 27 member states and also completely extends to Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway via the Agreement on the Economic European Area (EEA), permits airways with an air service licence issued with the aid of this kind of 30 states to freely function offerings among all of the airports on this area, which include in cabotage, without any regulations in terms of routes, frequency and ability, and with whole freedom to set fares.

The production of this single aviation marketplace, which concluded in 1997 with admire to liberalization whilst cabotage was covered, has been accompanied via complete harmonization of the policies applicable to air delivery in terms of protection, safety, air visitors control, slot allocation, coverage, competition, the environment, consumer safety, flight crew operating hours, and many others. All stakeholders within the air shipping chain should consequently follow the equal regulations; these blessings now not simplest passengers and shippers, who’re guaranteed highquality air transport thru a number of the strictest standards around, but additionally airways and airports, which are able to operate in an environment wherein the opposition is truthful, the guidelines are the identical for every person, and the offerings are ever greater efficient.

The liberalization of air transport in the European Union has resulted in extended connectivity, diversification of deliver, lower fares and, therefore, accelerated traffic. There at the moment are four instances more routes (or pairs of towns served) than in 1992, while the liberalization procedure commenced, and eight instances more routes on which at the least 3 vendors compete, thinking about the benefit of air delivery users (supply: European Commission).

The European Union’s single aviation market has been extended to the six nations of the Western Balkans (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, North Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia) via an settlement to create a European Common Aviation Area (ECAA) that changed into signed in 2006. As properly because the 27 EU member states and the six Western Balkan states, this area additionally encompasses Iceland and Norway. These 35 states will finally proportion the same air transport guidelines in a area wherein airways protecting a provider licence issued by one of the states can perform freely. However, integration of the Western Balkans into the single airspace is a slow and conditional method; the settlement presents for two conferences to transpose its provisions into country wide law and ensure that the nations of the Balkans put in force a predefined list of European standards, as set out within the settlement. At every level, new rights are granted to commercial airlines. The number of routes among the European Union and the international locations of the Western Balkans trebled between 2006 and 2018 (source: European Commission).

However, regulatory harmonization between the European and Maghreb countries of the Western Mediterranean need not cross this far, because the ECAA agreement forms a part of the manner to steadily integrate the countries of the Western Balkans into the European Union and reflects their dedication to completely include the European acquis.

Drawing in this Gradual, Comprehensive Approach to Build the “Single Aviation Market for the Western Mediterranean”
The advent of a single aviation marketplace for the Western Mediterranean need to be primarily based on these equal concepts: a slow commencing up of markets linked to a certain degree of harmonization of the regulations applicable to air delivery. This production can be considered a gradual method, step one of which might contain the execution of Euro-Mediterranean fashion agreements relating to air services between each of the Maghreb international locations and the European Union; on the equal time, the Maghreb countries should paintings collectively to open up their markets within the spirit of the Yamoussoukro Decision (1999) and within the more widespread framework of the advent of the Single African Air Transport Market.

With appreciate to north-south family members
The European Union has already embarked on the journey to open up its aviation marketplace to a few Maghreb countries as part of its external air delivery coverage committed to neighbouring countries. This policy issues Algeria, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia.

Thus, the 2006 “Euro-Mediterranean aviation settlement between the European Community and its Member States, of the one element and the Kingdom of Morocco of the opposite part” sets out the situations for the operation of business air offerings between the Kingdom of Morocco and the 27 nations of the European Union. Air offerings are already largely open, and Moroccan and European commercial airlines are approved to perform unlimited offerings between any airport inside the Kingdom and any airport within the European Union. This establishing up of markets is observed by way of a procedure of regulatory harmonization in numerous regions of air transport, albeit now not to the extent supplied for by the ECAA settlement. Ultimately, whilst the joint committee, the frame responsible for managing the settlement, confirms Morocco’s implementation of all air delivery policies provided for via the treaty, schedule carriers will advantage from extra opportunities (i.E. Certain fifth-freedom rights, mainly in the European Union for Moroccan vendors).

Since this settlement with Morocco turned into applied in late 2006, the wide variety of metropolis pairs served has doubled (there have been 198 exclusive connections among Morocco and the European Union in 2018), the common fare has fallen with the aid of greater than 60% and the number of passengers has doubled (15 million in 2018) (source: European Commission).

A comparable settlement among Tunisia and the European Union, the textual content of which become initialled in November 2017, ought to sooner or later be implemented in 2021 after a delay caused by felony issues within the European Union. The philosophy of this agreement is in keeping with that of the settlement with Morocco, particularly a gap up of markets primarily based on a certain diploma of harmonization of the policies applicable to air delivery. Arrangements have been made to make certain a clean transition among the cutting-edge state of affairs and the total commencing up of the market between Tunisia and the European Union as a way to helping the efforts of Tunisian schedule carriers to adapt to this new state of affairs.

Since 2008, the European Commission has also had a negotiation mandate for Algeria; in different words, an authorization issued by way of the Council of the European Union and EU member states to open negotiations with Algeria on a European air transport settlement. It is consequently viable that negotiations between Algeria and the European Union may be launched on the idea of an agreement that sets forth the identical standards as the two previous agreements as soon as the two events are equipped to achieve this.

With respect to the opposite two Maghreb nations, i.E. Libya, which has observer status inside the Union for the Mediterranean and is concerned inside the European Union’s neighbourhood coverage, and Mauritania, which isn’t always protected on this policy, members of the family with the European Union in the subject of air transport continue to be to be defined, especially since the depth of site visitors among these states and EU member states remains marginal.

The figures beneath provide extra insight into the priorities and results of the European Union’s aviation coverage closer to its neighbours within the Eastern Mediterranean (assets: Eurostat):

The economies of Morocco and Tunisia are exceptionally dependent on tourism, and the upward thrust in passenger numbers among the previous and the 5 European international locations within the Western Mediterranean is being fuelled via the blessings of the European agreement, which lets in all Moroccan and European companies, particularly low-price airways, to function all viable routes among the airports of Morocco and people of the European Union. It is vital to note the repercussions of the occasions of 2015 on visitor visitors in the two international locations. With regard to Tunisia greater in particular, the go with the flow of passengers is rising much less extensively than for Morocco, for the reason that present bilateral agreements normally do no longer permit European low-cost carriers to function from a member state apart from the one that issued them with a carrier licence. The coming near near signing of the air agreement among Tunisia and the European Union will make it possible to take a look at the outcomes of liberalization on passenger flows. Finally, in the case of Algeria, certain bilateral agreements maintain barriers and restrictive situations on the extent of get admission to to the market, which is probably playing a position inside the stagnation of site visitors and the protection of fares deemed excessively excessive.
Given modern air site visitors levels between Libya and Mauritania and the European Union, the connection among them inside the field of air shipping has yet to be described.

With admire to relations among the Maghreb countries
The Yamoussoukro Decision of November 1999 begins with those words:

“We, African Ministers in price of civil aviation assembly in Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire on thirteen and 14 November 1999, (…) hereby adopt this selection (…): This Decision establishes the arrangement amongst State Parties for the sluggish liberalization of scheduled and nonscheduled intra-Africa air transport offerings. This Decision has priority over any multilateral or bilateral agreements on air offerings among State Parties which might be incompatible with this Decision.”

Besides the gradual liberalization of offerings (the primary five freedoms of the air), without drawback in terms of potential or frequency, the important thing features of a unmarried market, the Decision also includes a high-quality addition, i.E. The possibility of states to designate an airline from some other kingdom party to the Yamoussoukro Decision.

In 2018, critical annexes were delivered: Annex five on Regulations on Competition in Air Transport Services inside Africa and Annex 6 on Regulations at the Protection of Consumers of Air Transport Services. This is absolutely evidence that a unmarried market can’t be viewed from a liberalization perspective by myself, and that the convergence or, better still, harmonization, of positive policies is important to assure that it functions well.

The respectable release of the Single African Air Transport Market in January 2018 placed the Yamoussoukro Decision within the context of Agenda 2063 and revived a liberalization method that changed into initiated two decades earlier. Thirty-four African states, including Morocco, have already made “solemn commitments” to the SAATM, and 18 states have already signed the Implementation Protocol aimed at ensuring coherence among the Yamoussoukro Decision and their bilateral air provider agreements (supply: website of the African Civil Aviation Commission).

In the foreword to the 2018 edition of the Yamoussoukro Decision (Single African Air Transport Market Towards a Single African Sky), Moussa Faki Mahamat, Chairperson of the African Union Commission, said that air transport liberalization in Africa could result in extra connectivity, a “large reduction in air ticket charges” and growth in intra-African site visitors in terms of passengers and freight, which might enhance the profitability of African airways. These remarks are supported in particular by way of a study by using InterVista titled “Transforming Intra-African Air Connectivity: The Economic Benefits of Implementing the Yamoussoukro Decision”.

The effective implementation of liberalization is possibly to show a broader need for regulatory harmonization. This want must speedy emerge as obtrusive inside the discipline of aviation safety and protection, specifically while states avail themselves of the option to designate commercial airlines whose regulatory oversight in these fields is guaranteed by using some other state.

In addition, the improved drift includes the danger of saturating the airspace and air site visitors manipulate our bodies. The search for more efficiency in this vicinity, especially in phrases of the economy and environment (e.G. Discount of greenhouse fuel emissions), have to bring about ever stronger cooperation, one of the superior stages of which will be the established order of so-referred to as practical airspace blocks (FABs), primarily based on the European Union’s version. These purposeful airspace blocks are designed to address the fragmentation of airspace and organize airspace in line with flows in preference to country wide borders. Such cooperation degrees among nations, or among air visitors manipulate offerings, can be conceived simplest on the basis of relatively or maybe fully harmonized regulations.

It should be cited that cooperation in the field of air navigation already extends throughout the Mediterranean, as reflected inside the partnerships established between the BLUE MED FAB (the Mediterranean useful airspace blocks that hyperlinks Cyprus, Greece, Italy and Malta) and the air navigation service carriers of Egypt and Tunisia, which participate as “associated partners”, in addition to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, which enjoys observer repute.

The first constructing blocks of air delivery liberalization among the international locations of the Western Mediterranean were laid; the next steps have to take shape because the SAATM progresses.

All of these constructing blocks (European agreements with sure Maghreb nations, North-South cooperation, the sluggish implementation of the Single African Air Transport Market) are paving the way for the orderly commencing of the air transport market between the countries of the Western Mediterranean. The next steps ought to doubtlessly relate to new agreements among the European Union and the Maghreb nations however, extra importantly, real progress inside the implementation of the SAATM would mark a decisive turning point in the system to liberalize air transport offerings.

A symbolic step turned into taken on 13 November, when the Assembly of Heads of State and Government of the African Union certain 14 November because the anniversary of the Yamoussoukro Decision and named it Yamoussoukro Decision Day. Beyond its symbolic importance, this circulate also underlined the commitment of African states to forge ahead with the initiative.

Moreover, the fitness crisis has reinforced this need to open up the African marketplace, as pressured on the Assembly by way of Ali Tounsi, the Secretary General of Airports Council International Africa. He made a passionate plea in favour of the Single African Air Transport Market, the African Continental Free Trade Area and the Free Movement of Persons Protocol (FMPP), factors he considers vital to make certain the recovery of the air transport enterprise within the put up-Covid era however, even extra importantly, for the future of the African continent (Institutional Message introduced by the Secretary General of ACI Africa on the occasion of Yamoussoukro Decision Day 2020).

Chapter 7: Urban Transport
The lockdown measures carried out to lessen the unfold of COVID-19 had a clean impact on city mobility, in a few cases leading to a reduction of an anticipated ninety% of journeys. On the only hand, the experience of the way it can be to stay in cities with low pollutant emissions turned into presented. However, on the opposite, there has been a drop in self assurance in the use of public transport, one of the number one way of accomplishing the medium and long-term low-emission goal situation.

The post-lockdown period is an possibility to devise and take a look at a series of measures that must contribute to a metropolis model (and its delivery machine) committed to the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris Climate Agreement. There is talk of tactical urban planning, clever and sustainable mobility, public shipping because the backbone of urban mobility and digitalisation as a device to facilitate transport, among other thoughts.

Urban Transport inside the Post-COVID Era: The Same Solutions for the Same Problems
Frederico Francisco, Advisor to the Minister of Infrastructure and Housing, Government of Portugal

Freedom from the Car As the Ultimate Goal of Urban Transport
We are all acquainted with the records of urbanization inside the closing two centuries, particularly in Europe and North America, spreading within the remaining 50 years to the relaxation of the arena. Of course, each metropolis has its very own records, but it within reason easy to pick out long term continental and global developments.

The overarching trend in city delivery since the 1950’s has, undoubtedly, been motorization. From America, to Europe, to Asia and Africa, a few sooner some later, all large metropolises address congestion, shortage of parking and pollutants resulting from automobile site visitors. Even towns with old, large and advanced public transport networks, the boom in motorization coincided with a long pause in the growth of transit networks, at the same time new explicit methods were being constructed.

More lately, the dominating trend inside the discourse has been around the concept of “clever and sustainable mobility”, exemplified via the currently published European Commission Sustainable and Smart Mobility Strategy [EC 2020]. It is frequently completed with different adjectives consisting of related, shared and virtual.

The exact meaning of clever and sustainable mobility isn’t always totally clean, and it does not always help while other adjectives are added, like “linked”, “shared” or “digital”. It is likewise in all likelihood that exceptional stakeholders interpret them differently. This turns into clear when nearly all delivery solutions assign themselves numerous or a lot of these adjectives.

One of the meanings of “clever and sustainable mobility” interprets into the concept of Mobility as a Service (MasS). Like so many corporate buzzwords, its meaning is also no longer absolutely clean. Most frequently, it’s far utilized in reference to trip-sharing, carpooling, e-motorbike or e-scooter-sharing mobile programs. Also like many corporate buzzwords, all players inside the region abruptly sense like they need to undertake it if they’re to remain at the forefront of innovation. The fact is that maximum answers that undertake the MaaS label are person mobility solutions, even supposing, on the quit of the day, ridesharing and car-pooling are truely glorified taxi offerings.

There are, of path, fantastic examples and true useful innovation. Bike-sharing offerings are a great instance, as they help triumph over an crucial barrier to initial adoption of the bicycle as a mode of delivery. These services assist to bring more human beings to biking.

The “sustainable” part generally refers to electrification or, extra commonly, strength transition in shipping. Combustion engines in automobiles and buses are progressively being exchanged for batteries and electric powered cars. It continues to be not clear if hydrogen can overcome its technical barriers and turn out to be substantial.

However, we need to bear in thoughts that electric powered vehicles are not environmentally neutral. In truth, there are no environmentally neutral solutions, there are most effective better and worse solutions, from an environmental point of view. An electric powered automobile nonetheless wishes strength, and wishes batteries to store that electricity, that desires to be produced somewhere. A railway takes up area, needs earthworks, tunnels and viaducts, it desires large quantities of concrete and steel.

The universal factor is that definitely shifting from combustion to electric powered engines will most effective help resolve the issues with pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Shifting from privately very own motors to shared motors, something their strength source, will handiest partially lessen the demand for parking, at the same time as its results on congestion may additionally also be negative.

Generally speaking, individual motorized shipping is almost constantly worse than either collective or person lively mobility. There will constantly be exceptions, but that is true for the good sized majority of cases, most honestly in towns.

The Need to Regain Trust
The COVID-19 pandemic, the lockdowns and the want for social distancing had a devastating impact on all collective delivery systems. In a depend of days, streets have become empty, at the same time as buses and trains became emptier, however no longer absolutely empty.

Even if city delivery structures always have a considerable part of direct public investment, ticketing sales is still an necessary a part of their running budgets. The state of affairs blended a sudden fall in ridership with the want to preserve maximum offerings in operation to transport critical people, at the same time as trying to hold social distancing. This led us to recognise that there are large quantities of employees that can’t work remotely, particularly, amongst what we now know as “vital employees”, as trains and buses were still transporting too many human beings to allow for the advocated social distancing. On the alternative hand, we intuitively understand that a few humans have become frightened of using collective transport and lower back to their vehicles for his or her travel.

As regulations were eased and reintroduced, humans seem to progressively revert to their preceding go back and forth behavior. Of course, we have to also account for the effect of the drastic reduction in tourism that is likely to remaining for numerous years. The blended outcomes of normal and low passengers had been uneven in different towns.

The information accumulated via each Apple and Google from their respective cellular mapping systems has been made to be had in mobility reviews that yield some interesting effects [Apple 2020, Google 2020]. Although these datasets have obstacles, they offer us, as a minimum, a proxy for the tendencies in transport utilization during the yr 2020. The statistics furnished by using Apple definitely permits us to compare the requests for itineraries via car, strolling and public delivery and examine their evolutions.

Taking, as an instance, the records from 3 European capitals, Paris, London and Madrid, we are able to see that, while in Paris public shipping utilization recovered quicker than automobile usage, in London and Madrid it became the other manner round. A right reason behind this distinction might require a detailed look at of the different factors, like the significance of tourism, guidelines at some point of the lockdown or the extent and period of the lockdowns themselves.

The immediately take from those results, proven in Figure 1, is that we ought to now not take the loss in public transport as exact. Once the regulations are eased, humans have a tendency to come back back to their everyday lives pretty quick. Even whilst regulations continue to be in vicinity, fatigue results in a sluggish reversion to the mean.

Figure 1. Mobility tendencies from Apple Maps software utilization in Paris (top left), Madrid (pinnacle proper) and London (bottom). Red strains are for automobile, orange for on foot and blue for public delivery.

However, being an essential milestone in people’s lives, and certainly inflicting surprising modifications like unemployment or new employment for giant numbers of humans, there’s an possibility to guide humans to trade their conduct and undertake public delivery as their transport of choice. While it isn’t viable to construct new transit lines in a depend of months, it’s miles possible, for example, to reduce fares. As has been proven in Portugal in 2019, a fare reduction has the potential to immediately motive a measurable shift in public transport usage.

It remains uncertain how lengthy it’s going to take for humans to completely regain believe in collective delivery, however all indications lead to a reasonably short return to a previous ordinary, no matter all the speak approximately a new normal. It can also take longer in some locations than others, however we will most probable arrive in a few months or multiple years with extra or less the same issues annoying the same answers.

Ephemeral and Lasting Effects
Many towns have used the empty streets all through the lockdown as an possibility to redistribute public area, in what has emerge as known as tactical urbanism. For the maximum part, this has materialised inside the establishment of pop-up bike lanes and other manner for booking public area for future deeper interventions.

Some of those initiatives have confronted the same old resistance while new bike lanes taking up space that changed into formerly devoted to car movement or parking face. Others have already been eliminated, which include the one in High Street Kensington, London. The dispute for public space is ongoing and has not paused at some stage in the lockdowns.

One the alternative hand, the surprising closure of most corporations triggered a sudden shift to faraway paintings. This is any other issue that has been lauded as a part of a new ordinary. Indeed, this isn’t always a new fashion, but it’s far restrained to a few precise forms of jobs, generally, certified office jobs. A sizable part of employees, now known as vital, that can’t work from home. These workers even have a high correlation with lower earning.

It may be very tempting to count on longlasting tendencies from brief-term effects, but it may be deceptive. If it appears that evidently tactical urbanism may be a success in towns which could take quick action to make the changes everlasting, it stays to be seen how a great deal remote paintings will remain.

Technology Is Not the Key
There are two major ways wherein generation comes into the controversy approximately transport.

The first and maximum not unusual one is the communicate about digitalization. Digitalization will no longer result in any predominant trade through itself, however it could help the transition. One instance is the already mentioned motorbike-sharing offerings. In collective delivery, virtual technologies enable incorporated ticketing and journey planning. However, no digital platform can circulate thousands of human beings without ok infrastructure and rolling inventory.

The second manner that generation is delivered into the talk about delivery is whilst absolutely new solutions are promoted to address the challenges of mobility. These technologies come in extraordinary levels of adulthood but nearly constantly with soaring guarantees to revolutionize mobility. Examples of such are HyperLoop, autonomous cars, flying automobiles or self sustaining flying cars, the latter being dubbed as drones.

Arguably, this form of proposals can mislead for coverage makers, with the aid of transferring their interest from quite simply available solution in favour of a promise of a miles higher “modern” idea, generally promised for only a few years within the destiny. The problem is that the guarantees, regularly, don’t live on a detailed scrutiny and, whilst they’re possible, might be decades in the destiny, like HyperLoop or only inexpensive for elites, like flying cars.

Of direction, era is a ways from irrelevant, however the solution need to in shape the hassle and no longer the other way around. As stated above, the key assignment of city mobility these days is modal shift away from individual motorized delivery. The key transport technologies wished for this are, essentially, those which have been available for over a century: trains, trams, buses and bicycles. Of direction, being antique, they all have had over a century of incremental development, main to new approaches to the ones identical technologies like tram-educate or Bus Rapid Transit (BRT).

The layer of virtual technology and programs lets in to make these structures and networks easier to perform and to apply, and that is their key aim, however they do now not update the funding in infrastructure and equipment.

City Design Is the Key
One key difference among urban delivery making plans in recent times and the first half of the 20 th century is the valuable position that urban planning and public area structure have taken inside the planning of the shipping networks themselves.

In the overdue nineteenth and early 20th centuries, main towns launched into the construction of transit networks that tried flow humans while seeking to keep away from the congestion on the surface. This become the golden age of underground and extended city rail networks. Although some speedy-developing towns in China have built huge underground networks within the last few many years, the fashion internationally has been to move toward the coexistence of transit networks at the surface, making them extra powerful and efficient.

The large majority of non-constructed-up areas in any major town is dedicated to the auto, either for circulation or parking. Some towns in North America took this vehicle dominance of the general public space to extremes, with considerable parking lots and huge avenues and expressways cutting through the centres of fundamental towns.

Public area is a scarce resource in cities. For that reason, it is a depend of social equity, before all, to make sure its adequate distribution. It is inevitable that area for automobiles desires to be decreased with a purpose to offer greater area for taking walks, cycling, for public transit or maybe simply to stay. Despite frequent resistance from residents and local agencies, it has been proven over and over that this sort of intervention in city streets results in high quality effects for all worried: public area becomes more first-rate, public transport works higher, becoming a greater attractive alternative, and neighborhood commerce boom their motion. In the end, a dull and threatening road can be changed into a active neighbourhood plaza.

The role of the neighbourhood need to additionally be highlighted right here. The idea of a “15-minute neighbourhood”, where all important offerings are inside attain for each resident with out the use of a vehicle, has visible huge adoption in instructional and planning groups. There are proper examples of absolutely need neighbourhoods constructed beneath this principle, but it is extra difficult and genuinely slower to convert an current part of a city into any such neighbourhood. Many towns already went via a a long time long process of city sprawl with full-size residential regions constructed around the auto. These conditions gift a brilliant undertaking. Still, the redistribution of public area is an imperative a part of it, and frequently one of the first steps.

This is why the shift in the direction of a transitoriented development is the best trade that could bring about a actually decisive modal shift in urban delivery. A metropolis made from more than one neighbourhoods, crossed with the aid of public transport traces that connect to different neighbourhoods.

Railway Stations As Central Hubs
The transit neighbourhood principle explores within the preceding segment may be tailored to a bigger scale whilst we’re speaking about large cities which have massive and very dense centres. Also, whilst considering a territory with more than one towns of various sizes, the urban transit gadget of every considered one of them desires to connect with the intercity delivery network. The sustainable mode of delivery for intercity travel is, unquestionably, the railways.

This is why, in lots of towns across the world, extremely good railway stations are reasserting their role as vital hubs, now not best of mobility, however of public life.

In New York City, the demolition of Penn Station inside the 1960’s has been regarded as one of the largest acts of public vandalism in records. An attempt to make it proper is underway, in conjunction with the expansion of the station itself, making it prepared to address 900 000 passengers each day. On the first day of 2021, a brand new Train Hall has been opened, in part getting better the beyond grandeur of this historical station [MTH 2020].

In Paris, Gare du Nord, the busiest rail station in Europe is likewise going via a major upkeep and growth, in conjunction with the public space surrounding it [StatioNord 2021].

These two projects serve simply as examples to illustrate their not unusual components. In their characteristic as transport hubs, they listen all modes and scales of delivery, from intercity trains to nearby trains, to city mass transit, to bike parking and sharing. In their other characteristic as hubs of public lifestyles, they offer massive and exquisite in-door and out-spaces, together with shops, eating places and gardens.

The overarching subject of this newsletter has been to reveal how we have already got the important thing troubles identified and the desired solutions. In the arena, and certainly inside the Western Mediterranean area, nations and cities develop at specific paces, but there must be no shame in copying the good examples next-door and learning from others’ mistakes. It is not possible to recognise if, some decades from now, we can be capable of observe the years 2020 and 2021 as a turning point in urban shipping. Let us, not less than, now not reverse the positive traits which can be already underway.

References

The Key Role of Sustainable Urban Mobility to Build Back Better in Mediterranean Cities
Pere Calvet, CEO, Ferrocarrils de l. A. Generalitat de Cataluña (FGC). President, International Association of Public Transport (UITP)

Introduction
The disaster generated with the aid of COVID-19 has had a primary impact on public shipping systems throughout many Mediterranean countries. Public and private region stakeholders have followed all of the necessary measures to guarantee provider continuity, making sure the mobility of crucial the front-line people.

Existing offerings were saved walking or new ones put in place in order that individuals who can not live home and should travel have an good enough mobility alternative. Supply has been tailored to the newly required distancing measures, face masks have been mandated across maximum cities, and station and automobile cleansing has been scaled up and not using a regard to the more expenses. All this has been done even as protective workers and clients.

However, the fitness state of affairs has powered a considerable and unsustainable fall in public transport ridership and related fare field sales of close to 90% in some towns, in spite of supply a ways outstripping call for because the disaster started out. With a progressive resumption of sports after lockdown, it’s miles imperative to step in with exquisite measures or the gadget will disintegrate.

We are dealing with a international pandemic that is profoundly deepening inequalities and undoing development on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). At the identical time, we retain to stand many international challenges with irreversible impacts for people. In the responses to those interconnected crises, we can not manage to pay for to tackle just one or the alternative. Indeed, climate, health, social inclusion, street safety and the economic system are all beneath assault and public delivery, pushed through innovation and provider first-class, is a important a part of the solution.

The Undisputed Benefits of Public Transport to Our Societies
In the reaction, repair and restoration phases of this disaster, citizens and policymakers have reacted differently across areas. This time, we need to build again better. A key part of doing so will entail shoring up the function of public shipping, the backbone of city mobility, as an enabler to other financial, social and environmental city goals.

The monetary blessings of public delivery are 5 instances higher than the money invested in it. Public shipping unlocks wonderful results inside the wider economy via connecting human beings to their jobs, research and amusement occupations, making an allowance for clustering of sports and business improvement, improving excellent of life, assisting tourism, decreasing traffic congestion, stabilizing assets values and helping to regenerate cities or deprived areas via delivery connections. Studies document a significant growth within the fee of property developments close to transport initiatives designed with a transit-orientated approach, meditated via nearby retail stores, quality pedestrian areas and open spaces.

Worldwide, over thirteen million local jobs are linked to public transport services. For each direct process in public delivery, 2.5 extra jobs exist within the supply chain and the local economy. A current take a look at carried through United Nations and the International Labour Organization (ILO) suggests that employment possibilities would indeed be unfolded with the aid of the advertising of inexperienced and healthy delivery. Stimulating using public delivery by doubling funding may want to create as a minimum 2.Five million additional jobs within the transport area global. This will increase to at least 5 million jobs if the broader effect on different sectors of the financial system is taken into consideration.

Public transport brings people collectively and same possibilities to all citizens, as the handy and lower priced option to ensure access to public services. It plays a crucial role in nearby development, imparting mobility to all and retaining territorial and social concord, leaving no person and no place in the back of after the crisis.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), seven million untimely deaths are due to air pollutants. It accounts for one-1/3 of deaths from the leading non-communicable sicknesses (stroke, lung cancer, coronary heart attacks and chronic obstructive pulmonary ailment). Over 90% of the arena’s populace live in areas where air pollution exceeds secure ranges. There should consequently be no ‘lower back to ordinary’ in which it’s far risky simply to breathe.

According to the European Environment Agency, public transport is 4 times extra efficient in step with pax-km than non-public motors. Every kilometer travelled on public shipping saves ninety five grams of GHG emissions and 19 grams of NOx in comparison to motorized personal transport.

Investing in fitness prevention via decreasing air pollutants could bring down the value of treating noncommunicable diseases inside the 21st century. A big part of the fitness solution might contain equipping cities and their inhabitants with integrated public shipping, lowering risks from visitors injuries, obesity, air pollution and noise. Those could benefit all and reduce the social inequalities in the front of these hazards.

Decreased site visitors as a result of the lockdown in lots of cities shows that nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations can hastily be reduced through as much as a 3rd. While in the current crisis, several towns have determined to droop existing vehicle use and parking restrict guidelines or postpone new ones to assist healthcare workers and vital deliveries, it’s miles essential that those tested instruments for purifier air be absolutely reactivated as quickly as possible. The fundamental hazard for catching COVID-19 is certainly contact with an infected person, and healthcare fine is critical in figuring out consequences. However, studies display that air pollution may want to count in several ways. For example, higher demise fees because of lungs and hearts weakened by way of dirty air. Pollutants also inflame the lungs, making population greater prone to the virus. This raises worries about rising pollution ranges after lockdowns.

If we are to restriction the upward push in worldwide temperature to 1.Five°C as consistent with the Paris Agreement, we have to cut worldwide emissions via 7.6% each yr for the subsequent decade. As mentioned within the UITP Declaration on Climate Leadership, this calls for extra formidable national commitments and more difficult objectives to attain carbon neutrality by means of 2050. Non-country actors just like the public transport sector have proven accelerated dedication and commitment to achieving a low-emissions future and harnessing associated opportunities. The quickest and most price-green way to decarbonize humans’s each day mobility and decrease the footprint of their mobility selections is to sell public transport, strolling, and biking.

Road site visitors accidents are the 10th main cause of death globally, responsible for greater than 1.2 million deaths in step with year. 90% of these casualties happen in developing international locations. Around 50 million humans also are injured on the world’s roads each year, costing governments up to 3% of GDP. The quantity of road visitors deaths continues to climb steadily and the rate of death relative to the dimensions of the world’s populace has remained consistent, meaning we are manner off turning in on the intention set by way of SDG 3.6 to halve the number of worldwide deaths and accidents from street site visitors accidents. Public transport has a vital function to play as get right of entry to to a secure and sustainable urban delivery machine for all, which incorporates increasing public transport, is a recognized technique to acquire this objective.

Cities Need Better Mobility
Throughout history, the city panorama of the Mediterranean towns has advanced in reaction to social, economic and environmental adjustments. Today, with greater people moving to city regions, towns are accountable for seventy five% of energy intake and 70% of world carbon dioxide emissions. The way we plan and build our cities defines our best of life. Urban planners and choice-makers are being driven to reconsider how mobility is prepared.

Cities throughout our Region have understood that with this crisis now could be the time to transport forward on sustainable urban mobility and lots of have already begun to transform their city area and assessment the allocation of road area disproportionately allocated to non-public motors during the last many years. The complementarity and integration of active, shared and collective modes of shipping is fundamental.

The digital revolution has added radical adjustments to our economies, which includes freight and passenger mobility, and has endorsed new actors to enter the mobility marketplace. If the brand new services have an effect on metropolis mobility control and influences the urban streetscape, as part of a much wider metropolis method they also constitute new possibilities to enhance the mobility options and facilitate a vehicle unfastened life-style. Cooperation, partnerships and communicate are key to allow a redefined public transport system, integrating those new complementary services with mass public delivery in an efficient and sustainable manner. In the context of Mobility as a Service (MaaS), no shared or collective mode of delivery ought to be ignored of this dialogue.

This disaster represents a critical possibility to definitively trade matters for the better, handing towns returned to the human beings. The choices taken inside the coming weeks and months will outline how wholesome, resilient, and livable our cities may be going forward. But we are able to best do that through stepping up collaboration amongst stakeholders to assist public shipping. Public transit institutional frameworks and marketplace regulations range in keeping with neighborhood specificities, however the start line to any city’s strategic development plan ought to be to craft a not unusual imaginative and prescient (each vertically and horizontally) wherein city mobility is posited to deliver on the town’s strategic targets and relaxed wider socioeconomic benefits. Twinning lengthy-time period techniques with tactical measures fosters a move of consistency inside the decision-making method, not difficulty to political phrases. Current brief time period tasks enabling strolling and cycling must evolve in long time solutions associating public delivery stakeholders.

Health isn’t only a hallmark for monitoring progress, but an critical detail to ensure sustainable development. Placing fitness and well being at the center of the making plans technique can foster true livelihoods, construct resilient and vibrant communities, and provide voice to vulnerable groups, at the same time as permitting development to reduce inequalities in urban areas.

Some regulators would possibly view the crisis as an inflection factor to boost up the transition toward sustainable mobility, even as others should loosen regulatory mandates. By framing how our city ecosystems function, guidelines could have a primary effect at the success or failure of an urban mobility approach. Indeed, a bendy and conducive regulatory method, adapted to an increasingly more complicated and competitive surroundings, supporting innovation and innovative itself, permits towns to thrive and attain their full ability.

Innovation, including the improvement of recent generation solutions, has a main role to play to build a extra resilient urban mobility device, with actors in a position to reveal more agility and offering extra flexibility within the provision of services than they had been able to do until now.

Some of the tendencies that appeared for the duration of the COVID-19 disaster would possibly best be temporary however a few shifts can be permanent. The extra pervasive use of virtual technology, which includes the growth of virtual interactions (teleworking, etc.), is possibly to effect the structure of the demand and the shape of cities. To ensure the continuing relevance of public delivery and its associated advantages in this destiny environment, the sector need to adapt and embrace purpose pushed innovation and digitalization to construct and deliver higher first-class, upgrading the level of personalised offerings and requirements for public transport customers.

Public transport is a lucrative funding and important motive force of wealth. Ensuring lengthy-time period funding balance, enabling CAPEX and OPEX making plans inside the context of rigorous SUMPs, is important to supporting town strategies and accomplishing focused mobility effects. Dedicated rules and funding must be ring-fenced. The governance version must be superior to better include the numerous beneficiaries of public shipping infrastructures and offerings, including companies.

The coronavirus disaster is likewise hitting public shipping price range and urgent top notch measures within the shape of clean situations for the use of recovery funds in desire of a modal shift are needed. This timing is probably ideal to enforce opportunity funding schemes, which include congestion charging or road pricing, leading to a virtuous cycle wherein non-public vehicles fund public transport.

Policy Recommendations
Mediterranean towns and international locations ought to put money into recuperation and resilience for a systemic socioeconomic transformation, in which public transport and lively mobility play a key role to build returned better. For that reason:

Conclusion
Cities and countries have been responding to quick time period emergencies, however now we must move past, make sure the survival of the general public delivery and seize a historical particular opportunity to start over and shape the destiny of our cities.

Our city mobility zone is strongly inter-related with many different demanding situations (climate, fitness, social inclusion, avenue protection, etc.) as a way to now not be met with out a clear priority given to public delivery as a crucial pillar for financial, social and environmental recuperation, each within the quick and long-term.

Public delivery stakeholders have confirmed that despite the fact that they didn’t have the enjoy to deal with such sanitary disaster, they have got reacted extremely swiftly to the state of affairs and demonstrated their incredible sense of duty in the direction of their body of workers and the communities they serve.

Numerous clinical studies and empirical analysis show that public shipping is a great deal less risk than different public places or personal gatherings. Unfortunately, it’s been too regularly stigmatized with none solid arguments. Based on scientific findings and practical enjoy to be had these days, public transport is taking the correct measures to lessen the ones dangers to a level this is workable and perfect by way of users.

Nevertheless, extra efforts should be made to strongly speak public transport benefits to society and repair residents ́ believe.

Chapter 8: Logistics and Multumodality
The life of efficient logistics is one of the requirements for the good improvement of monetary pastime. This performance resides, in component, within the life of alternatives for the routing of products, permitting users to select among them in keeping with their priorities (costs, quickness, reaction capacity, and so on.). In this feel, the supply of suitable connections among the one-of-a-kind modes of delivery is a key element. Logistics structures, ports and land terminals play an essential position in multimodality. Furthermore, delivery corridors constitute the prioritisation exercise in moving in the direction of an orderly and deliberate implementation of multimodality in the delivery system.

COVID-19 impacted logistics chains by affecting the distribution of goods in sure sectors of pastime. In Europe, notwithstanding the closure of borders, the importance of transport corridors as a concern course for the supply of crucial products become demonstrated. In this context, and to be able to enhance the modern multimodal logistics device, there has been talk of increasing the robustness of supply chains, accelerating digitalisation tactics, and committing to extra sustainable logistics chains, amongst other issues.

Logistic Platforms Post-COVID: Prospects and Opportunities
Isabel Velasco Ortiz, President. EUROPLATFORMS EEIG (The European Logistics Platforms Association)

There are many speculations approximately the impact of the Coronavirus disaster on economic activity, however within the shipping and logistics sector it’s far increasingly more obvious that its impact will cross a long way past changes in strategies and operations.

Uncertainty prevails and it’s miles tough to homogenize the various conditions in every u . S . For the reason that measures taken with the aid of the respective governments have a primary effect on both the mobility of human beings and goods and the monetary situation.

From Europlatforms, a federation of countrywide institutions of European-huge logistic systems throughout Europe, presenting services for over 25 years, we’re satisfied that the configuration of deliver chains can’t be conceived nowadays without logistic platforms, which already play a key position as soon as these logistic chains have developed into intermodal logistic chains.

Our feature is to elevate the profile and importance of logistic facilities throughout European establishments to be visible as a primary hub of activities associated with delivery and logistics. It is a nobrainer: no deliver chain, no monetary improvement. Yes, it’s far that easy. Logistic systems add cost and provide offerings; they may be also spread in the course of the European corridors. The European Commission is constantly talking about European concord and Logistic Centers are an amazing example of this.

With regard to the European Transport Network (TEN-T), logistic structures are configured as freight turbines for European freight corridors, freight integrators across Europe and a point of joining the exclusive European freight corridors.

As it stands, both existing centers and new facilities that can be advanced have the ability to respond to the evolving desires of the logistic quarter that demands exquisite connectivity measures in a satisfactory and dependable infrastructure.

Challenges of the Future…That Are Already at Our Door
Vendor diversification
Local enterprise improvement: The crisis has highlighted the dependence of European industries on Asian markets. As a end result, various experts in the region have taken a shift in logistic flows as a right, to reduce dependence on third countries mainly at the Asian continent and on a return to neighborhood production, with a knock-on impact at the nearby economy, employment, and changes in modes of transport.
Alternative sourcing, localized production systems based totally on 3D printing are emerging, which might also result in a drop in dependence on Asian suppliers.
A assessment of the role of shares that would lead to re-comparing Just in time policies.
It still appears to be a little early to pick out the international locations taking advantage of this diversification within the deliver chain, but what we will say is that those already making an investment in new infrastructure and imparting more centers to the set up of the enterprise may want to acquire most of the relocations. The healing of expanded commercial pastime in Europe is obviously what groups want.
This hypothetical scenario of de-globalization may want to have results: a alternate in enterprise approach and less efficiency with a knock-on effect of better charges. The price might inevitably be directed at the final purchaser. But it’s far some thing that we will should accept, and which can’t be allowed to spread into global deliver chains. Companies may also pass far from simply in time models to adopt more secure models. Higher inventory degrees mean a more want for ships to keep and serve greater effectively.
These circumstances, collectively with the elevated environmental consciousness of intake habits and the effect of shipping on air great, also seem to have an effect on the enhancement of local trade, diminishing buying from 0.33 international locations.
Sustainable mobility
We have to take the recommendations set out within the “Green Deal” into account, that brings us to the concept of Green Logistics, i.E. All efforts to degree and minimize the environmental impact of logistic pastime, mainly carbon footprint control. The Green Deal changed into formalized in December 2019 through the EU and the street map is being considered for the coming years. More mainly the delivery quarter is being translated into legislative proposals and adjustments a good way to accelerate the transition to sustainable and sensible mobility: the overriding goal is to lessen emissions by means of ninety% by 2050. 


These regulations additionally reflect an interest in transferring the quantity of street freight transport to rail and inland waterways.

The movement of goods to rail should preserve if we’re to satisfy the emission discount target and export to the European continent below the same situations as our competitors from the East, who rely upon the Chinese railway line, the Silk Route. But to achieve this, each unmarried participant inside the rail area, specifically administrations and public entities with competence in the area, must trade their mindset on one hand, to seek to alternate the focal point from “traction to transport”, and then again, to increase a loyal partnership with the street transport organizations, the ones that currently circulate maximum of the goods in Europe, imports and exports.

In addition, these days logistic platforms are already developing active policies for the improvement of sustainable environmentally pleasant mobility with the aid of optimizing the shipping brief haul operations, enhancing the intermodal long-distance rail site visitors and integrating city structure and public passenger delivery.

The idea, cooperation among specific modes of delivery is essential to logistic structures allowing sustainable development for all shipping and logistic operators.

Logistic structures are key within a sustainable shipping device because they facilitate the development and cooperation of different modes of delivery (rail, road, aircraft and ship) to reduce transit instances, lower cost and growth the volume of goods transported effectively increasing the overall performance of delivery through promoting massive freight traffic corridors.

Urban distribution of goods
The upward thrust of e-trade and the incorporation of buying online through new, enormous segments of the populace has superior improvement via as much as five years. And that is right here to stay.

Consumption in city centres is rising. Logistic operators will ought to locate the right stability to be green in socalled “last mile” to meet clients with competitive shipping fees. Reverse logistics, clever and robotized warehouses, and segregation of proximity and 1/2-rotation warehouses tied to large, hyperconnected logistic hubs are all coming again.

This growth of e-commerce will raise the call for for brand spanking new logistic areas, in two ways: on the only hand, the need for large logistic areas and storage systems in places a ways from principal towns will boom, and on the other, there might be an multiplied want for high-rotation go docking ultimate mile vessels located 5, 10, or 15 kilometres away from principal cities.

This kind of transport is vital for the development of city distribution because of its operativity, agility and contribution to the control of towns. In the same vein, we cannot overlook the wishes springing up from opposite logistics. The control of returns is also a venture bobbing up from the growth of e-trade and also will require a variety of logistic surfaces.

The development of city structures for distribution, perceived as a community of esystems to manage the transport of goods on these city distribution platforms in metropolis centres, appears unstoppable.

And this could totally rework the scenario of the three types of logistic areas in large-metropolis environments and the typologies of logistic ships and all kinds of warehouses: low-rotation, regional, high-rotation, capillary, and concrete distribution.

That is why the logistic parks linked to standard intake, the ones connected to e-trade and now additionally those connected to this new city distribution in huge cities, will must exchange. Warehouses will have a tendency to be multi-valent for low rotation and excessive rotation, averting intermediate tactics that increase prices and instances by generating a waft among branch stores far from city centres due to their low fees, their more accessibility, and many others., and over big surfaces, with urban distribution structures within the centre of cities.

The advent of new measures to improve the city distribution of goods is complicated, specifically because of the multiplicity of agents and sectors concerned past e-commerce. As a end result, non-public public collaboration is discovered as key to develop potential answers.

Transport and logistic centres, public or non-public, play an crucial position in defining this new environment, and we ought to collaborate to put in force these new distribution and transport models. Public administrations ought to set up new guidelines to make certain mobility and sustainability, and promoters of logistics centres must offer the important infrastructure. For fine results, the paintings need to be done from an integrative attitude.

Logistic centres play a twin position in this context: they’re integrated into urban-metropolitan territorial making plans plans and applications because of the fine externalities generated by way of the following: by means of facilitating centralized distribution, lowering the quantity of vehicles on fleets, and shortening the car course, which eases congestion on city street networks, and for this reason mitigates the emission of pollution and greenhouse gases and additionally includes the actual estate enterprise.

Digital transformation of logistics (BIG DATA)
Digitization entails information trade between unique gamers inside the shipping area to adjust supply and call for in actual time, leading to a extra green use of sources. Digitization can help create a definitely multimodal delivery system that mixes all modes of shipping into one properly-functioning mobility provider.

A prerequisite of BIG DATA is similarly training that carries new abilities together with the automation of garage, method to optimize stock, and many others. Training might be the key and throughout each logistics and delivery in the coming years, positions related to consumer satisfaction and customization might be in demand.

Digital transformation will create the want to in addition professionalize human assets operating in logistic commercial enterprise approaches, in which today there are nonetheless a huge quantity of experts who will ought to adapt to this digital environment.

Any company will require specialists with a combination of talents and knowledge not so smooth to discover in these days’s staff. Logistics and generation are actually sectors that generate employment, and we must additionally be prepared for that.

The logistics expert need to be characterized as:

Multidisciplinary: Logistics has been divided into compact, exceptionally specialised areas of know-how with very specific generation, but the future might be marked by means of a extra multi-purpose expert with a know-how of all regions of the supply chain, capable of adapt to exclusive conditions which can arise and make the right decisions in complex times by having a more worldwide view of all of the techniques.
Digital: He must be able to use unique equipment, particularly management software and method simulators to assume various conditions that markets convey to the table. Another interesting component of the logistic expert could be to discern whether or not a technology supplied to the employer is essential for the company operationally and additionally be economically worthwhile.
Flexible: Able to adapt quickly to the novel adjustments that supply chains can undergo, and with a sturdy potential to make actual-time decisions to alter operating methods in one-of-a-kind working methods beneath his command.
This Highlights the Need for More Efficient Platforms
Therefore, these days more than ever, the builders of these infrastructures should be capable of expand platforms that reply to those new demands, to keep beforehand of the game.

The infrastructure determines mobility. No essential alternate in delivery can be possible if it isn’t supported with the aid of an good enough community, greater efficient and sensible. Globally, investments in delivery infrastructure have a wonderful impact on monetary boom, create wealth and jobs, and growth trade, geographical accessibility, and mobility.

The alternate need to be planned in a way that maximizes the high-quality impact on financial boom and minimizes the negative impact at the environment. If there is one superb factor we are able to highlight about this pandemic, it’s miles the visibility given to the delivery sector and the attention of what this area approach for the economic system.

Which is why I do now not wish to give up with out expressing my appreciation and way to all the professionals within the logistic and delivery sectors, who have secured the supply of goods in general and of clinical products and foodstuffs specifically, who’ve assured deliver throughout this horrible scenario because of the pandemic.

This is a disaster that for positive has each an expiry date and a solution and will absolutely not go away us with out treasured private and expert lifestyles classes. I would really like to focus on one of these: the attitude of collaborative work.

Logistic platforms are a proactive detail of the delivery gadget, working to permit organizations to growth their competitiveness.

Logistic systems are installation and equipped to make the maximum of all evolution and exchange within the area on a international level.

Sustainable Supply Chains in Mediterranean: a Concrete Roadmap for the Post-COVID-19 Era
Salvatore D’Alfonso, Senior Programme Manager of Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane. Representative of Italian Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport at the Union for the Mediterranean

Introduction
Recent research on Maritime Space Planning and Blue Economy monitor the importance of transport to the vicinity’s economy, society and surroundings. These studies, accomplished integrating technical, socio-economic and environmental factors, screen that maritime transport is the second one most critical thing of trade inside the Mediterranean, after coastal and maritime tourism.

The Mediterranean is today taken into consideration the enduring region of sustainable mobility inside the location, wherein concrete shipping and logistics tasks are advanced with the purpose of connecting Trans-Mediterranean and Trans-European Transport Networks. The contemporary tendencies in this maritime framework show the movement towards a version in which the shipping services inside the Mediterranean assume a decisive position within the Ro-Ro, Ro-Pax offerings connecting the Mediterranean maritime terminals, in the service of social and economic shape of the international locations.

However, Mediterranean Sea is presently suffering from special pressures. Due to its geographic position, wedged among the temperate weather of valuable Europe and the arid climate of northern Africa, the Mediterranean vicinity seems to be one of the most at risk of international climate trade. Moreover, the increased costs of creation and spread of marine alien species, due to the Suez Canal sheer importance of transport traffic, constitute a supplementary strain element to Mediterranean marine native biota already challenged via climatic abnormalities. We also spotlight a lack of a joint or regional environmental impact assessment technique to evaluate the ability consequences of ports, port infrastructure and port additives on the delicate balances of the marine surroundings.

So, it’s time to put into effect an progressive version of sustainable mobility for Mediterranean, geared toward harmonizing, on the one hand, the establishment of effective, remarkable maritime connections, and so reducing the socioeconomic imbalances among the Southern and Northern Countries bordering the Sea, which might be among some of the reasons of migration actions, and, alternatively, at proscribing pollutants damages to the sea, taking motion on climate change and enhancing cultural exchanges.

To do this, we suppose that the concept of sustainability need to be applied in a extra comprehensive, holistic attitude, protective existence under water, navigating to zero emissions, promoting sustainable development of ports in keeping with the United Nations Sustainability Agenda. Because ports are important factors of connection in which cargo is surpassed between ships, railroads and vans, enhancing their sustainability will trickle right down to each detail of the global supply chain. Likewise, by assessing port sustainability, we are able to perceive which components of the chain want fixing.

The World Ports Sustainability Program (WPSP), launched in Antwerp on 22nd and 23rd March 2018 via the International Association of Ports and Harbours (IAPH) in partnership with a number of the arena’s primary port industry-related businesses, objectives to contribute to the sustainable development of global ports in step with the United Nations (UN) Sustainability Agenda and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The WPSP Portfolio counts 120 tasks from seventy one ports, overlaying 38 countries and five continents. The World Ports Sustainability Program has developed a practical framework on how ports can put in force every of the 17 UN SDGs in practice. Resilient Infrastructure, Climate and Energy, Community Outreach and Port City Dialogue, Safety and Security and, subsequently, Governance and Ethics are the main addressed domain names. So far, few tasks had been delivered from Mediterranean Ports.

In this newsletter we would love to highlight some of the modern-day mission to which the Mediterranean Ports ought to contain themselves to make greater green the deliver chains and make contributions to the sustainable boom of the Mediterranean Region, while preserving and rebuilding ecosystems.

Resilient Infrastructure
Resilience is the capacity to count on and plan for disruptions, resist loss in operations and/or soak up the effect of disturbances, unexpectedly get better afterwards, and adapt to shortand longterm stressors, changing situations and constraints. To efficaciously perform, the maritime shipping machine need to be resilient. Stressors that affecting it consist of environmental, human-triggered, electricity-associated, and others. Planning for mitigation to limit disruptions from these and other potential stressors will serve to streamline operation of the maritime transport. In this regard, we spotlight the significance of digital solutions and an included method to enhance its resilience.

Digitalisation is one of the latest essential factors driving the conventional port enterprise to completely reshape its business and make the industry greater efficient and sustainable. The International Port Community System Association (PCS) promotes adoption of a Single Windows to manage port and logistic strategies thru a unmarried submission of information and to attach shipping and deliver chains. The digital systems offer also an intelligent change of information between public and personal stakeholders, fostering PPP initiatives, co-developing innovation and slicing operational charges.

The Building Information Modelling (BIM), a manner for developing and digitally dealing with statistics on a creation project throughout the task lifecycle, additionally offers the opportunity to leverage commercial enterprise capability regarding lifecycle control of port and infrastructural property in all stages from undertaking development, making plans, building, operation and preservation until the fading out of those items. With the software of BIM because the feasibility studies, ports can allocate its assets extra efficaciously within the making plans and building stages both on production substances and personnel. Moreover, BIM fashions help with task manipulate, mainly for fee and time dimension. This data may be visualised through the digital twin and/or by mean of immersive enjoy via virtual and augmented reality, a good way to help in the verbal exchange method with stakeholders. Once the gadgets are completed and ready for operational phase, the sensors constructed into those infrastructures are connected as IoT packages with synthetic intelligence resulting in functionality on predictive preservation for higher price-efficiency in operation of infrastructural assets. As regards Climate Change, a multistakeholder coalition so referred to as “Navigate Climate Change” (NaCC) supports the sector encouraging operators and users of maritime infrastructure to stand weather trade decreasing Greenhouse Gases (GHG) and enhancing preparedness to conform to the changing weather. To this intention, the World Association for Waterborne Transport Infrastructure appointed in 2015 a Working Group of 20 specialists, which affords methodological steering to aid weather alternate model decision-making inside the ports and navigation region. It is a four-stage methodological framework primarily based on: expertise the context of reference, understanding weather-associated impacts, identifying vulnerability and risks, and identifying and implementing measures. The proposed methodology covers quite a number daily sports together with the control, operation and maintenance of infrastructure, conservancy, dredging, pilotage and engineering. It is likewise thinking about feasible weather change implications for the design and creation of new development tasks and it displays on interdependencies including hinterland connections. The foreseen outcome is a useful, well-structured and sensible guidance designed. Templates are to be had to assist in figuring out relevant stakeholders, getting ready an inventory of climate-inclined infrastructure property and operations, and determining tracking desires.

Climate and Energy
The reduction of CO2 and Greenhouse Gases (GHG) from ships is the best precedence inside the maritime domain. The preliminary method followed in 2018 with the aid of IMO’s Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC), envisages a reduction in GHG emissions from international transport by way of as a minimum 50% via 2050 in comparison to 2008. To try this, one-of-a-kind tasks of IAPH are ongoing, in addition to Onshore Power Supply (OPS), port calls optimization, port incentives for power-green vessels and Clean Marine Fuels (CMF).

Onshore Power Supply consists of connecting the ships to the port grid and flip-off ships engines. The answer appears powerful to lessen air pollutants in ports and GHG emissions from vessels, and it is giving momentum with an increasing number of ports which are adapting the infrastructure to this purpose. The port calls optimization implements the Just-In-Time arrival of ships helping the discount of GHG. A sensible guide on this solution became advanced with the aid of the IMO’s Global Industry Alliance. Port incentives award purifier vessels on the premise of an Environmental Shipping Index (ESI), calculated taking into account the amount of NOx and SOx emitted, and also based on the usage of onshore electricity that reduces CO2 and PM emissions. The Clean Marine Fuels (CMF) Working Group targets to address climate change and improve air excellent by using that specialize in secure bunker operations for new fuels in addition to Liquified Gas Natural (LNG).

It is well worth to spotlight additionally the Global Maritime Energy Efficiency Partnership (GloMEEP), a joint initiative of IMO-GEFUNDP, which introduced toolkits for ships and ports to apprehend the nature of emission and analyze strategies to reduce them. Trainings have been held in ports to teach contributors on how engaging in emissions inventories and develop moves in port regions.

Port-Rail Integration
Connectivity to the hinterland is turning into ever greater essential for ports, which are upgrading their rail connections to turn them into a aggressive differentiator. Port-rail connectivity is a strategic element of port development, both in financial and competitive phrases and to reduce bad externalities on people and the environment. Rail connectivity expands the port hinterland, growing the seize of recent cost-added freight and services for the port and additionally promotes boom in potential, without affecting the port-town courting, by linking “spatially” fragmented strategies without congesting the city environment surrounding the port.

The European Regulation (EU) No. 913/2010, concerning a European rail community for aggressive freight, required Member States to establish international marketplace-orientated Rail Freight Corridors (RFCs) so as to give a boost to co-operation between Rail Infrastructure Managers on key factors inclusive of the allocation of paths, deployment of interoperable structures and infrastructure development, and to promote intermodality among rail and other shipping modes by using integrating terminals and ports into the corridor management system.

To this goal, a common European web portal become designed to provide a platform for provider facility operators which include freight terminals, ports, marshalling yards, etc. To post records approximately their centers complying with the applicable EU regulations and to sell their facilities and offerings. At the identical time, it is meant for shippers, rail undertakings, field terminal operators and other logistics service vendors the use of rail to be a single supply of facts permitting them to pick out relevant centers for the planning of their offerings and the optimization of their transport and deliver chains.

The above-mentioned freight Regulation offers additionally for the established order of two Advisory Groups, particularly Terminals and Ports Advisory Group and Railway Undertakings and MTOs Advisory Group. They are supposed to act as a sounding board giving the Management Board of the Rail Freight Corridor advice on what moves to take to improve the provide to the clients. Terminal Integrated Capacity Offer is a concrete instance of an innovative industrial provider that was enabled way to a cooperation between Ports and RFCs. It consists in imparting a pre-arranged worldwide direction such as the internal timeslot inside the Terminal or Port Terminal, in order that the applicant can e book a provider from ramp to ramp similarly to what’s finished in avenue transport European and Mediterranean Ports joined the product, which is to be had in RFCs capability catalogue.

Sustainability KPIs

Strengthening public transport ought to be a priority for decision-makers in all nations across the Region. Governments, presently identifying how to allocate a number of the largest public budget in records, need to encompass the sector inside the financial recovery measures and preserve and even step up planned investments in public delivery infrastructures and offerings, due to their various high quality multiplier elements.
The public zone have to step in to assure a certain stage of balance thru dedicated mobility budget, performing as a driving force. The EU Recovery Plan and the next Multiannual Financial Framework might be key in some international locations of the Mediterranean atmosphere. We need to move ahead with concrete figures allocated to public transport on the subsequent long-time period budget and Next Generation EU by using the give up of the year. Alternative investment schemes, such as congestion charging or avenue pricing, should be considered. Clear regulations and a coherent method at nearby/ international level with the aid of ready government are key, at the same time as presenting agile regulatory frameworks and monetary incentives to build and deliver city shipping structures that have the tiers of ability and expanded satisfactory of environment human beings preference.
The modern disaster is setting the scene for doing what so many cities desired but lacked the opportunity to do. Through transport-orientated improvement, the want for motorized travel and the trip duration may be reduced. Residential, paintings and entertainment districts need to grow to be extra carefully linked and intermixed. Cities must prioritise reachable, safe, breathable, and walkable streets thru urban making plans, putting human beings on the heart, via imposing the cautious coordination of land use and long-term mobility making plans with the engagement of all stakeholders from venture start. There is now a golden opportunity for policymakers to combine and fortify these guidelines.
Public delivery ought to be the spine of urban mobility across all go out strategies that intention to shift man or woman motorized shipping in towns toward more sustainable modes as part of an integrated public delivery device (administrative, modal, fare…) that combines mobility offerings, gives door-to-door seamless journeys and gets rid of the need for the private automobile.
Travel call for control performs a key position to decongest the height. Public authorities and private actors need to collaborate to screen and realign strategies affecting the fast and, specifically, long term impacts of the cutting-edge disaster at the dynamics of towns and mobility. Supported by technological solutions and versatility, efficient responses to optimize and adapt the community will have an effect on clever travel.
Grounded in data and the technology, high quality verbal exchange measures are key to restoring humans’s agree with inside the public shipping region. All the equipment are already in area, be a mixture of policy decisions, energetic measures and reassurance of clients. Public transport government and operators should beef up their interaction with the media to provide an explanation for the crucial area pillars (patron consciousness, cleaning and sanitary measures and efficiency) and to boost up levers (innovation, digital transformation and strategic partnerships).
Conclusion

When we have a couple of signs that together constitute sustainability, we are able to see how properly ports do with regards to every sustainability purpose. Then we will statistically combine those results right into a composite index to rank their sustainability holistically. This manner, we will use information to as it should be examine ports for many one of a kind, however concrete, sustainability objectives. However, we cannot accurately define, shield, and evaluate sustainability dreams with out the assist of statistics, and we can’t progress closer to goals with out making that records public. With a stability among data, metrics, and stakeholders in thoughts, the path towards sustainability for ports and for other regions will become lots clearer.

Among the cutting-edge gear to assess the undertaking sustainability, the Envision score machine, advanced by means of the Institute for Sustainable Infrastructure (ISI) and the Zofnass Program for Sustainable Infrastructure at the Harvard University Graduate School of Design, proves to be the most suitable guidance tool to make informed decisions and offer sustainability metrics that can be implemented to all forms of infrastructure. The framework gives a bendy gadget of standards and overall performance objectives to useful resource stakeholders and decision makers and assist assignment teams become aware of sustainable tactics throughout planning, design and creation with a view to preserve at some point of the assignment’s operations and upkeep and quit-of-lifestyles levels.

Envision includes 64 sustainability and resilience signs organized around five classes: Quality of Life, Leadership, Resource Allocation, Natural World, Climate and Resilience. Envision verification is available to all sorts and sizes of physical infrastructure along with airports, bridges, dams, landfills, levees, parks, power generating stations, pipelines, railways, streetcars, stormwater management structures, wastewater treatment flora and different additives that make up civil works. The majority of initiatives that have been validated below Envision were transportation or water focused, and this specificity encourages to undertake the tool in deliver chains evaluation, additionally to provide a commonplace language for collaboration and clean conversation between the numerous worried actors. The interdependency among the credit permits the assignment team to maximise undertaking advantages and evaluate competing ideas on a way to gain those dreams. It also forces the troubles of a holistic approach to maximize task sustainability. A qualified, ISI-trained verification crew is assigned by using ISI to check assignment documentation furnished by way of the undertaking group, and verify it meets the Envision sustainability standards. In this regard, credibility of a thirdparty rating machine as Envision will growth public self assurance and involvement in decision-making.

Projects that complete the verification manner and gain sufficient factors earn an Envision award. Award tiers are primarily based on the quantity of relevant Envision factors done: Verified, Silver, Gold, Platinum. To qualify for an award, a venture need to acquire at the very least the full relevant Envision points.

A new Supply Chains Mediterranean Model
The implementation of a new initiative to put into effect the Mediterranean deliver chains might be based totally on the following concrete actions:

Carry out an in deep analysis of the Mediterranean context, assessing the situations conducive to growth intermodal connectivity of the Mediterranean vicinity, introducing a “Inter-Mediterranean” network, wherein the deliver chains play a applicable position in articulating members of the family among the special ports and nations.
Create an innovative maritime service version with a clear definition of the characteristics and exceptional of the offerings to be furnished, so that you can boom the connectivity between the Mediterranean rims no longer as the sum of character port connections, but through a machine of coherent and synergic maritime offerings. The preference of the characteristics of the new maritime services and the selection of the ports could be made with the active role of the MEDport Association, launched in 2016.
Update the Trans-Mediterranean Network map and awareness on the goal of its validation, extending the rules, the economic gadgets, the satisfactory practices and the operational fashions applied at European and global degree. The verified map ought to bear in mind the plans to attach TMN-T with the African Transport Network, Arabian Peninsula and Asia, with a purpose to reap the vision of an enlarged and harmonized community.
Analyse the key overall performance signs needed to set up a sustainable, efficient, well-organized and frequent maritime provider, which includes the environmental and social dimensions (socio-economic and environmental aspects), the strength problems, delivery troubles (ship equipment, avenue and rail intermodality, operations, performance of offerings and port facilities), economy (price-gain analysis, call for forecasts), the regional integration and the institutional framework. Sustainable signs and consequences of the score machine followed for the venture assessment will permit to pick the initiatives “notably sustainable”.
The selected initiatives could be advocated by means of the Union for the Mediterranean for labeling, immediately proposed to the IFIs for a further assessment, or submitted to the European investment mechanisms to move to the following steps of the undertaking lifecycle (feasibility, precise design, implementation, tracking).

Conclusions
The evaluation completed highlights the existence of projects and working businesses at worldwide degree, which might be reading and growing concrete solutions aimed toward introducing the idea of sustainability in maritime transport and at extending progressive tactics and strategies to the entire shipping supply chains. The Mediterranean institutions responsible for promoting concrete transport projects in the Mediterranean can gain highly from the initiatives already started out, triggering a virtuous circle by using stimulating capability stakeholders, starting the mission concept and tracking the following ranges of mission maturation and implementation. Finally, it’s miles vital to find assets in any respect stages of the mission life cycle. To this purpose, their active function in selling tasks covered in a “system imaginative and prescient” that highlights their interdependence and ordinary, the long-time period framework of the transport networks, may be completed through the activation of technical workshops with the principle International Financial Institutions.

Digitizing Supply Chains: The Gateway for Post-COVID-19 Era
Islam El-Nakib, Professor of Logistics and Supply Chain Management. Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport, Alexandria, Egypt

Introduction
The Chinese government announced the primary case of COVID-19 till the epidemic swept thru the sector in a short duration now not exceeding days, and most of the nations of the arena have successively introduced the invention of cases among its citizens (WTO, 2020b). The majority of countries in the world first of all followed prudential guidelines at international airports getting back from China. However, precautionary measures at these airports have become implemented no longer handiest to all air travelers however additionally via all the approach of shipping to apply a mandatory thermal detection manner for tourists (World Economic Forum, 2020). Hence prevailed Intraworld moves are a form of reservation concerning the European Union nations, which additionally closed their borders Geography among them.

COVID-19 differs from the relaxation of the epidemics and sicknesses which have troubled the world for the duration of records, which are restricted spread in a restricted geographical range around the sector or a selected united states, consisting of the SARS epidemic in China, and the Ebola epidemic in West Africa, Spanish flu, and swine flu, in which these diseases and epidemics did now not leave the identical effect (World Bank, 2020a). Which turned into due to the COVID-19 in a brief period. China’s reaction got here with the government imposing a nation of high alert to manipulate the epidemic through quarantining the inflamed and isolate them healthily away from populated areas, and imposed a curfew in Chinese cities and the town Ohan is the source of the epidemic, with a populace of approximately 11 million people. With the slow spread of the virus, The World Health Organization has declared COVID-19 a global pandemic, and international locations need to confront it strictly by: Take measures to restrict its spread and take warning (World Bank, 2020b).

Therefore, this newsletter ambitions at figuring out two major methods: First, to spotlight the impact of COVID-19 on worldwide deliver chains via revealing the instances on the worldwide financial boom and the global alternate of goods and services. Second, to consciousness on how virtual deliver chains can be the maximum adaptive tool for managing several disruptions. Finally, the article concludes with several tips and actions to be taken for better dangers and disruption mitigation.

The Impact of COVID-19 on Global Supply Chain Spectrum
Global financial increase
Although the Chinese economy has faced a decline with the aid of 2% growth fee for the duration of the preceding years but it’s far nevertheless gambling a pivotal function inside the international financial system, as the second biggest financial system after america economic system, and as the most important exporter economic system for production items and a primary trading associate for world countries (World Bank, 2020b). The growth of the global economic system witnessed a slowdown even before the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic because of the demanding situations it faces and represented in trade tensions between China and the United States of America, and political and political risks, as well about the fluctuating situations in some nations of the arena (UN, 2020). Multinational groups had lowered their forecasts on worldwide monetary increase before the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic. For example, the International Monetary Fund revised its forecast from 3.3 % to three.2 % in 2020 following the emergence of Virus (IMF, 2020), while it is currently moving to amend these expectations after the spread of the COVID-19, taking into account its effect at the bad facet of worldwide deliver and demand, specially after the slowdown in the determinants of global call for represented with the aid of the slowdown worldwide consumption and funding (OECD, 2020).

In addition to the movement of global exchange that has been paralyzed after countries close their borders, and restriction the motion of products and people. The worldwide economy is in a deeper recession than it witnessed for the duration of the worldwide economic crisis in 2008 (WTO, 2020b). In the identical context, the World Bank expected that the worldwide economic system will grow via about 2.Four % in 2020, besides for the indicated that the uncertainty surrounding the worldwide economy still exists (IMF, 2020). The World Bank (2020a) shows that these expectancies may be changed in line with present day situations and capability threats it’s far because of the outbreak of the epidemic, no matter international efforts and stimulus packages released by means of multinational businesses, international agencies and governments and the worldwide relevant banks. On the opposite hand, the United Nations (2020) indicated that the global financial system in mild of the COVID-19 outbreak, it’s far predicted to develop through much less than 2 % in 2020 compared to its expectations before the emergence.

The virus, which reached 2.5 % with the possibility that the agency will make in addition modifications in light of contemporary uncertainty. Note that corporations pointed to some of the present demanding situations that might be an obstacle to reaching prices the boom it stated, such as exchange and geopolitical conflicts and monetary turmoil (ICMA, 2020). In addition, the repercussions of the COVID-19 on the worldwide economic system is dealing with a nation of uncertainty, and the shortage of get admission to till now to discover vaccines to treat it, so worldwide and local businesses have tended to study expectations economic growth for 2020, and lately adopting greater practical eventualities to assess the hazard of the outbreak of the epidemic on the worldwide economic system Consequently, diminished its global increase forecast to two.Four % (WTO, 2020a). Figure 1 illustrates coronavirus scenarios spotlight the destructive impact on boom. The change in GDP increase in 2020 relative to baseline, percent points.

Simulated impact of weaker domestic call for, decrease commodity and equity prices and better uncertainty. Base-case state of affairs with the virus outbreak targeted in China; broader contagion state of affairs with the outbreak spreading appreciably in other parts of the Asia-Pacific location, Europe and North America.

According to World Economic Forum (2020) their estimates a decline in international monetary increase is attributed to the modification of the US financial boom in 2020 because of the outbreak of the virus from 2.Three% to one.Nine% due to the decline in public and personal consumption, And uncertainty approximately asset prices. In the EU area, a growth fee of zero.8 % is anticipated in place of 1.2 %, because of decrease exports and slowing consumption. The increase rates have also been adjusted the Japanese economic system went from poor 0.7 % to -zero.2 % in 2020. Growth charges have also been adjusted the Chinese economic system went from 6.1% to four.9%, and there are still other poor risks to the global economic system in view of the uncertainty triumphing within the global in this period (World Bank, 2020a).

Figure 1. Coronavirus eventualities highlight the adverse impact on increase
International Trade of Goods and Services
International change become paralyzed during the short period of the outbreak of the COVID-19, which in flip affected all from exports and imports, because the World Trade Organization anticipated a slowdown inside the motion of merchandise alternate round the world in the quick term, as a result of the disruptions resulting from the virus’s repercussions of conditions of uncertainty and border closures among countries, along with countries of the EU. The World Bank (2020) suggests that the worldwide offerings trade is witnessing a full-size slowdown considering the fact that 2019, because the price reduced Its increase from four.7 % in the first zone of 2019 to approximately 2.Eight % in the 1/3 quarter of 2019. The decline is expected to preserve, specially as the outbreak of the COVID-19 has had a negative effect inside the brief term on a number of important services that represent the premise for the balance of payments of nations along with air shipping, and tourism services, which can be the primary sectors maximum suffering from the outbreak of the virus (WTO, 2020a). For example, a exchange scale changed into recorded passenger air shipping offerings and the merchandise transport offerings trade scale are 93.Five and 94.Three points, respectively (IMF, 2020).

Where Which recorded losses in EU international locations, in which most people of lodge reservations have been canceled after the statement of the virus outbreak the tourism quarter in EU incurred heavy losses. The traveller area is not expected to get better all through the the rest of 2020, because the effect may additionally extend until the stop of 2021, it is able to start to recover, but now not at the extent it changed into before the crisis even in If the virus recedes, because of the bad impression about the disease that ruled worldwide travelers (European Central Bank, 2020). In this regard, it is anticipated that the rating of the arena’s nations will alternate within the journey and tourism competitiveness index (UNWTO, 2020). China, which ranks No. Thirteen, is estimated at 26.7 points inside the index to say no in 2020, as is the case for countries that witness high costs of HIV infection Especially the countries of the EU and the USA due to the controls and restrictions, they imposed Countries that limit access and exit in addition to to final visitor and entertainment areas until word else (World Economic Forum, 2020). According to the degree of alternate in offerings issued by using the WTO (2020b), it’s miles anticipated the boom price of worldwide offerings change because of the virus is still vulnerable, as it is possibly to decline in addition inside the coming months.

The Impact of COVID-19 on Digital Supply Chains Deployment
Even inside the center of an epidemic, the good news is that a push to boost up virtual transformation could be rewarded by means of newfound agility (KPMG, 2020). COVID-19 allowed the rare possibility for resetting worldwide deliver chains. Now is the time to put a continuing awareness at the customer centric, records enabled, digital technology that many companies had precise intentions to enforce previous to COVID-19, but deferred because of fragmented efforts, legacy structures, or other elements (Flynn, 2020). Furthermore, producers have experienced aggressive demanding situations in nearby markets due to fantastically better exertions expenses. That has been in part mitigated by using investment in automation, digital enablers and superior technologies.

Additionally, COVID-19 has added returned an emphasis on boosting nearby production for vital industries, compounded through growing unemployment and client choice to aid neighborhood enterprise (Carnevale & Hatak, 2020). The pandemic disruption to exchange stuck many off-protect, causing disruption inside the deliver chain. Global lockdowns delivered fragile domestic, regional, and worldwide deliver chains to a grinding halt. The preliminary outbreak underscored how lots of the worldwide economic system is based on China. Along with extended worldwide alternate and interconnected supply chains got here hyper-green, simply-in-time supply fashions. As COVID-19 hit, few agencies had redundancy of their deliver chains to weather a disruption of a number weeks (KPMG, 2020). There are alternate-offs with any commercial enterprise approach which include: there are embedded costs to hold greater inventory, to invest in back-up deliver chains, or to fabricate in the direction of the customer base.

Many supply chain strategies have been modified from performance and coffee-value us of a sourcing, to awareness more on deliver chain resilience and visibility that can lessen complexity and uncertainty across the deliver chain network. The supply chain resilience against unpredictable, dramatic occasions require robust business fashions enabled with the aid of a strong digital backbone and approaches that can pivot unexpectedly (Flynn, 2020). Thus, its is mandatory now to highlights the extensive steps that may assist agencies beautify their deliver chains, regardless of their digital maturity and transformation journey.

Consumers assume a customised experience consisting of product pointers and communications are inclined. Global companies are shifting far from traditional sales reps going door-to-door and the usage of virtual salesforce automation (Flynn, 2020). A survey with the aid of Carnevale & Hatak (2020) found that nearly 40% of respondents in EU elevated online buying in early April, higher than for the duration of the worst days of the disaster, and threequarters of them stated they planned to maintain up the habit inside the destiny. This aligns all practical areas in the deliver chain to be included. This integration permits real-time visibility to make better selections and may lessen operational value. The broad emergence of live-at-home orders similarly driven the digital trend as tens of millions abruptly found themselves running remotely, using digital systems to collaborate and assist their work, while hundreds of thousands of others had been homeschooled the use of online getting to know technology. Figure 2 presents how digital transformation in Supply chain can be carried out.

Figure 2. Implementation of Digital transformation in Supply chain
Conclusions
Every organisation is at a extraordinary degree in its digital evolution. Some are efficiently executing pilots or launching new business models and an identical or extra number puzzled as to wherein to even begin. The digital transformation journey objective is: to improve performance, create fee, and beautify the purchaser experience. Therefore, some supply chains of many groups the EU had transformation efforts closer to the new normal units in and companies turn their attention to the mid-and long-time period priorities to pressure sustained increase and prepare for destiny demanding situations. Figure three provides the encouraged model for how virtual supply chain in Post-COVID-19 Era. Thus, companies have to awareness on fee. They ought to use a selection of equipment and methodologies to goal and realize advantages and possibilities for ROI that could offset the costs incurred in remodeling supply chains. Companies can create a transformation roadmap by way of mapping important activities and figuring out capacity areas for failure /disruption, and behavior state of affairs evaluation to develop future contingency plans that construct resilience. Many agencies have advanced a complicated, purposebuilt virtual analytics platform that may leverage to pinpoint opportunities and cost-drivers quicker and greater efficaciously than earlier than.

Figure 3. Digital Supply chain Model in Post COVID-19 Era
COVID-19 has pressured us to accelerate and re-check our digital transformation plans. By leverage new technology and the power of the Cloud to ensure our systems are agile, relaxed, robust and scalable. Therefore, the are six degrees are recommended to be applies for effective digital deliver chains as stated by means of KPMG (2020):

Understand the price of complexity versus the value of range. While there’s price in meeting growing consumer demand for desire, providing too huge more than a few the wrong products and services is often not worthwhile.
Leverage records to enhance core abilities. The commercial enterprise intelligence is served by using dozens of different information streams, but are you able to leverage the records in a meaningful manner to improve present capabilities?
Lead with overall performance, no longer generation. Forget the hype surrounding the present day technological tendencies and cognizance on their gift skills and the wishes of the customers they serve.
Upskill the staff. Whatever the technological adulthood of the commercial enterprise, the achievement of the destiny deliver chain approach depends at the humans.
Embrace new partnerships. In the destiny, no single organization is likely to have the full suite of digital skills below one roof.
Without the specific awareness of those steps, the deliver chain digital roadmap risks turning into only a collation of appropriate thoughts – a backside-up brainstorm churned right into a task plan with little thought given to general go back on funding.
References

Key Features and Challenges for the Mediterranean Corridor
Iveta Radicova, Coordinator of the Mediterranean Corridor, one of the 9 TEN-T core network corridors

This article is the end result of an interview performed via CETMO with Ms. Iveta Radicova in early December 2020. Ms. Radicova is the Coordinator of the Mediterranean Corridor, one of the 9 center network corridors that make up the Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T). The objective is to recognize the function of transport corridors, and more specially the Mediterranean Corridor, in the course of disruptions including that skilled for the duration of COVID-19, the important thing elements for his or her powerful operation and the demanding situations they may face in the medium and long time.

The Mediterranean Corridor: Main Figures and Coordination Tasks
First of all, Ms Radicova describes the Mediterranean Corridor and its importance for the territory.

“The Mediterranean Corridor is the principle east-west axis in the TEN-T network south of the Alps. In political phrases, it constitutes basis for an interoperable transport hyperlink between international locations of Western Europe and nations of Central Europe. It also equips the Iberian Peninsula with a higher delivery connectivity within the wider Mediterranean basin.

The Corridor runs between the most south-west areas of Spain, following the Mediterranean coastlines of Spain and France, crossing the Alps closer to the east via Italy, Slovenia and Croatia, persevering with through Hungary as much as its eastern border with Ukraine. With 18% of the EU’s population, the Mediterranean Corridor regions generates around 17% of the EU’s GDP. It is a awesome contribution.

It is one of the maximum interconnected Corridors in Europe, crossed by 7 other Core Network Corridors. It features in overall 70 center nodes, along with 12 notably competitive and global sea ports, situated alongside the Mediterranean shoreline.

In pre-Covid instances, it become a Corridor characterized by using sturdy move-border change flows, particularly among Spain and France (forty eight million heaps) and France and Italy (forty four million heaps) with the common annual projection of in addition increase at levels above 2%.

The ports of the Mediterranean Core Network Corridor (CNC) dealt with 490 million tonnes of cargo in 2018 (round 12% of all shipment transiting thru EU ports), of which roughly eighty million tonnes are transhipment traffic. Hence, around 80%, or four hundred million tonnes of shipment are absolutely moving among the ports and the corridor, making it the 1/3-most vital CNC in terms of maritime visitors.

Port site visitors is dynamic, specifically for containers. The boom discovered among 2010 and 2017 inside the ports of the Mediterranean Corridor is better than the common increase within the North Sea ports over the equal duration.

It is likewise a Corridor with tremendous capacity for further boosting of global passenger traffic. It carried 81 million passengers on international rail routes crossing six international locations of the Corridor in 2015 with the primary flows between main urban nodes of Spain and France and France and Italy.

Finally, large components of the Corridor traverse environmentally sensitive regions (the Alps) and touristic zones (the shoreline). This Corridor has a excessive ability to shift from road/air to rail both for freight and passengers, using higher the excessive-speed network between dynamic city zones and traditional/regional rail lines for the delivery of goods and passengers.”

The Mediterranean Corridor and the rest of the TEN-T corridors were set up in 2014. That year, the EU shipping regulations also underwent an crucial model, as explained by the Mediterranean Corridor Coordinator hereafter.

“The EU delivery infrastructure policy has developed inside the final numerous years. At the beginning of 2000, the entire of EU transport investment was confined to pass-border troubles in the context of bilateral cooperation between Member States.

Transport infrastructure coverage had a completely limited hyperlink with horizontal problems of sustainability, decarbonisation, innovation, congestion or modal shift. It merely centered on a collection of selected projects.

2014 marked the beginning of a new era in European infrastructure coverage. Nine Core Network Corridors had been mounted, a strong governance system headed by means of European Coordinators turned into created and a solid economic scheme for investments in infrastructure became installation way to Connecting Europe Facility (CEF).

Since that moment, the adoption of the brand new Regulation at the trans-European shipping network, combining person pass-border tasks into actual multimodal corridors, with horizontal subjects of sustainability, modal shift, clever shipping structures, and a clear EU investment making plans through CEF and the opposite units that the EU disposes off, we are able to think about a surely European infrastructure policy.”

Ms. Radicova is proud to be appointed as Coordinator of the Mediterranean Corridor. In the exercise of this position, she plays a double political and analytical function.

“I turned into very thrilled when the European Commission proposed me to grow to be one of the European Coordinators for the TEN-T network. This changed into an possibility to sign up for a crew of prominent personalities, who commit themselves to help enhancing Europe’s transport device.” “Given my past political experience, I change with Ministers, nearby governments, infrastructural managers and European residents on the commonplace planning of transport infrastructure. Infrastructure that is interoperable, that invests in eliminating bottlenecks, that specializes in crossborder size and addresses adequate attention to the most environmentally modes of transport along with railways, Motorways of the Sea and inland waterways. In my interaction with concerned stakeholders, I constantly enchantment for strong and common sense programing of moves that result in a complete of completion of the Corridor.

On the analytical aspect, I put together Corridor Work plans. They include a detailed evaluation of the country of compliance of the Corridor infrastructure with the TENT necessities. The ambition is to reveal precise examples of progress carried out, to inform about the kingdom of modernisation in regards to key standards agreed through the TEN-T Regulation, to point out to challenges and vulnerable points that also must be addressed, if we need to achieve complete compliance of the community alongside the MED Corridor by using 2030.

My team additionally analyses the socio-monetary scenario of the Corridor and its delivery flows thru a committed transport marketplace study. I ensure that there’s a clean plan of the funding needed at the Corridor for all modes to attain the EU targets of 2030.”

The COVID-19and Transport Corridors
COVID-19 has had a excessive impact on the transport quarter, but it has also allowed to draw classes on the TEN-T because the backbone of delivery. This is the imaginative and prescient expressed via the coordinator of the Mediterranean corridor.

“We understand simplest a part of the pandemic‘s dramatic results on human beings and economies thus far. The delivery zone persevered to be heavily impacted by means of the containment measures in Europe and worldwide.

The European Commission reacted fast to the evolving pandemic situation. The idea of “Green Lanes” was mounted inside the first weeks of the disaster on the way to put in force uniform border management measures to make certain the availability of products and vital services.

What is vital from my factor of view is that the not unusual practice set up at all the relevant internal-crossing points used the trans-European transport network (TEN-T) as a reference.

The Covid crisis proved the software and resilience of the shipping corridors in Europe built across the TEN-T concept. At the equal time, it established further, a need and added-fee for making an investment in truly interoperable and without borders transport infrastructure based totally on not unusual delivery requirements and formalities.

The current disaster corroborated a vital role TEN-T corridors can play for the effectiveness and capability of the overall delivery infrastructure in Europe. It is apparent that we want to in addition invest in pass-border solutions, take away bottlenecks that stay in national sections of shipping grid, we want to further invest in virtual answers and clever delivery structures and degree that decarbonise delivery.”

Advancing in MultiModality and Interoperability of the Mediterranean Corridor
The development of pass-border connections became already a concern earlier than COVID-19, specially with regard to multimodality and interoperability, fundamental traits of the TEN-T middle network corridors. For this cause, Ms. Radicova desired to emphasise some actions that will be finished in crossborder sections to improve connectivity among modes, contributing to the green operation of the corridor within the medium and long time.

“The Mediterranean Corridor is about 3000 km lengthy. We ought to prioritize investments and make certain that they may be now not fragmented. Continuity and multimodal good judgment of maximum requirements are the important thing phrases applying to the Corridor. We need to resolve most important bottlenecks that exist amongst various modes of shipping. The most essential is the crowning glory of key missing hyperlinks, substantially the go-border sections. The three sections come to thoughts – Lyon Turin Base Tunnel, excessive-velocity line linking Barcelona with Montpellier, connections among Trieste-LjubljanaZagreb-Budapest up to the border with Ukraine.

The Lyon Turin assignment is the important thing section on which the premiere functioning of the complete Corridor hinges. This is the foremost link connecting the Iberian Meditterrean coast with Italy and South-East Europe. Without the cutting-edge base tunnel and high ability get admission to routes, the traffic waft throughout the Alpine border remains constrained to avenue delivery affecting this environmentally sensitive vicinity. They will also be deviated to different routes (along with Ventimiglia) causing unnecessary congestion and developing extra expenses.

The upgrade of Trieste/Aurisina and Divača requires an upgrade to satisfy TEN-T standards. I wish for a end of this section on the Italian side by using 2026. The identical applies to move-border section among Slovenia and Croatia.”

In addition to cross-border sections, surroundings of massive towns also can pose a hassle to be solved, because of the concentration of flows.

“The Corridor functions dynamic urban nodes – they be afflicted by lack of capability and have congested ring roads. For instance, regional rail passenger traffic has grown by means of 23% in Lyon between 2012 and 2017. High boom of such traffic is also found around Barcelona, Milan, Budapest and different foremost cities. This precise phenomenon creates an increasing stress on infrastructure in urban nodes, developing conflicts between freight, passenger lengthy-distance and regional trains.”

The introduction of interoperable railway requirements represents the primary element to be solved inside the Mediterranean corridor to enhance the relationship of each facets of the Pyrenees.

“If I appearance mainly at the Iberian Peninsula most ongoing and deliberate investments aim at upgrade to UIC gauge by both modernising the present traces or building parallel new systems in the most congested sections.

The utilization degree of move-border tunnel Le Perthus has not reached predicted levels but mainly due to the shortage of connectivity in UIC gauge to site visitors turbines and absence of interoperability (distinctive voltage and signalling structures, constrained number of tailored locomotives). Both the extension of the UIC gauge to the south to Algeciras, presently ongoing investment alongside the shoreline of numerous sections, and the development of the lacking hyperlink among Montpellier and the end of the Le Perthus segment are very important to recognize the capacity of the tunnel.

In this context awesome development may be determined in sections among Barcelona-Valencia-Alicante.
The 2nd platform between Castellón and Valencia is underneath making plans to boom the road capacity. The two future UIC tracks, currently underneath informative research, will cowl highspeed offerings, freeing additional capacity for freight visitors on the prevailing tracks.
The Vandellos rail skip, which solved the bottleneck as a result of the unmarried-music phase between Vandellos and Tarragona, is in operation considering the fact that the start of 2020. It decreased the journey time among fundamental city nodes of Valencia and Barcelona.
Between Tarragona and Barcelona the works are ongoing with regard to installation of a third rail in the current conventional tracks.
The line between Granada and Almería could be electrified and upgraded to UIC gauge by means of 2025.
Regarding the Antequera-Algeciras line, preparatory works started out with the drafting of the engineering challenge for the development of the 2 electric deliver substations required for the electrification of the road.
Finally, the new infrastructure is nearly completed for the connection of Murcia with the highspeed network.”
Different movements deliberate inside the Mediterranean Corridor and supported through CEF aim at having competitive travel options available to customers.

The Mediterranean Corridor has been a success in securing CEF finances, especially if we think about pretty good sized oversubscription rate. Between 2014 and 2018, 147 actions had been co-financed by means of the Connecting Europe Facility (CEF), which interprets to €2.Nine billion in CEF investment for a complete investment of €6.3 billion. The biggest share of funding remains allocated to rail (fifty four Actions, €2.4 billion, i.E. 83%) observed by tasks aiming at making street transport cleaner and safer (forty nine Actions, €163 million) and maritime tasks (33 Actions, 248 million). By imposing the TEN-T coverage, our aim is to create a possible and aggressive shipping infrastructure, providing competitive answers across selected modes of shipping. Only then, it’s far a decision of marketplace gamers what provide to take, what preferred alternative for travel to take.

Next Challenges of the Mediterranean Corridor

Beyond very last impacts of COVID-19 on shipping zone, there are some challenges that shipping guidelines cannot forget about to assure the resilience of the world in future scenarios, with climate neutrality being the maximum critical of them, as mentioned via the coordinator of the Mediterranean Corridor.

A critical commitment to EU’s climate neutrality approach achieving ninety% reduction in delivery emissions by way of 2050. I strongly believe that the TEN-T policy is a useful tool taking into account a gradual achievement of the climate purpose.

The European Green Deal and due to it and shortly to be followed the EU strategy for sustainable and smart mobility (nine December 2020) pave the way for future orientations of EU delivery investment policy. Greater cognizance on shipping decarbonisation, digitalisation, innovation, multimodality and the essential shift from roads to different extra environmentally modes of delivery is emphasized.

Unavoidably, the Corridor Work Plan will follow the strategic goals of the European Commission. They are severa:

We need to decarbonise shipping.
We must increase rail’s percentage in transporting people and goods.
We need to spend money on transport answers which can be innovative, strength efficient and secure.
Ms. Radicova also indicated other demanding situations that ought to be faced inside the near destiny, consisting of the confluence of visitors in urban regions and administrative and operational obstacles.

In addition, it have become quite obvious that the rail in primary city areas faces extreme bottlenecks, which hampers improvement and green co-life of neighborhood, regional and international visitors. Particular attention wishes to be paid to urban nodes which form the crossing factors with other center community Corridors, with a purpose to permit a unbroken float of high-pace passengers and freight flows. This issues first the principal nodes like Valencia, Madrid, Barcelona Lyon, Milan, Verona, Venice and Budapest.

A separate trouble is the existence of the operational and administrative barriers which can have a poor impact at the profitability of the investment and on the performance of the complete Corridor. The present barriers to train duration, the restrained loading gauge, numerous speed requirements, ERTMS deployment, standardised length of the tracks in rail-road terminals are the most pressing troubles that ought to be addressed in the destiny.

Finally, Ms. Radicova meditated on the significance of incorporating technological advances into the operation of the hall, as proven by some projects already funded by way of CEF.

Beyond the realisation of the geographical additives of the Mediterranean Corridor by 2030, I agree with that we have to additionally ensure that we go along with the time” and leverage the technical and technological advances which might be inside attain nowadays. Alternative fuels, sensible delivery systems, unmarried home windows, better multimodal connections need to end up a trademark of the Mediterranean Corridor. Many tasks going into those instructions are already being financed with the aid of the Connecting Europe Facility, a EU shipping price range committed to a complete implementation of middle and comprehensive delivery network. CEF functions many projects that install opportunity fuels’ infrastructure, put into effect virtual answers throughout 4 modes of transport, and innovate on ITS in urban nodes. We may be positive this focus will no longer be lost inside the next EU economic perspective.

Conclusions
The COVID-19, a Follow-On inside the Evolution of Transport and Logistics
Centre for Transportation Studies for the Western Mediterranean (CETMO)

Background
The World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the COVID-19 a pandemic on eleven March 2020. Its impact on monetary and social interest turned into glaring from the start. The COVID-19 brought on a international contraction of three.5% of real GDP through 2020 in keeping with World Bank facts. The drop of actual GDP in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and the European Union (EU) areas was estimated at 3.9% and six.6% respectively, marked by way of the decline inside the 2d region of 2020, with 6.6% and 14.6% respectively.

Affected via mobility restrictions, the delivery and logistics zone has been deeply hit by using the impact of the health crisis. Despite the contribution of different modes of transport to make certain the distribution of critical goods, inclusive of meals and medical components, the decline in hobby changed into a fact. More particularly, the International Road Transport Union (IRU) estimates that, in comparison to 2019, 2020 has witnessed a 18% drop (USD 679 billion) within the worldwide avenue freight shipping. Regarding rail shipping, the UIC expected passenger volumes decreased about 80% for all country wide rail services and almost a hundred% for global rail passenger services at some point of lockdowns. However, for freight operations, the volumes had been hit with an average estimated lack of among 10 -15% for most operators. With regard to maritime shipping, UNCTAD anticipated global products exchange to drop of 20% in 2020, prompted by way of the contraction of 27% inside the second region. Finally, regarding worldwide air transport, ICA and ICAO predicted that global passenger site visitors fell by using 74% (a discount of 1,376 million passengers) in 2020 compared to 2019, equal to $250 billion lack of gross operating revenues of airways. Domestic passenger site visitors, dropped with the aid of 50% (a discount of one,323 million passengers) in 2020, representing a $one hundred twenty billion lack of gross running revenues of airlines.

Although the quantification of the effect of the pandemic is truely meditated by using facts, domestic confinements of population, closure of borders, interruption of price chains, definition of priority freight corridors for critical items and cancellation of flights and cruises confirmed the importance of the effect all through the early tiers of the COVID-19 disaster. With this angle, CETMO and IEMed determined to contact professionals on transport and logistics to open a reflection via quick articles on how the pandemic may want to affect the destiny of the world. It resulted inside the gift initiative Mediterranean delivery and logistics in a put up-COVID 19 generation: possibilities and opportunities.

Articles drafted with the aid of professionals from exclusive parts of the Mediterranean and worldwide establishments have served to exchange perspectives on region tendencies and the future of various modes of transport within the location, reaching a socialisation of know-how and challenges targeted at the Mediterranean reality.

COVID-19, a trend accelerator
The COVID-19 has expanded the development of regional and international developments that had been already manifesting earlier than the onset of the pandemic, permitting us to border the conclusions of the initiative. It especially issues the boom in reshoring and nearshoring procedures, the fourth commercial revolution and increasing resilience in price chains.

The first trend is the increase in reshoring and nearshoring tactics. The trend of relocation of a few businesses from developed countries in search of reasonably-priced group of workers, going on for the reason that Nineteen Eighties, has been dropping help in recent times because of exchange wars between international locations, the developing cognizance of fee chains’ high dependence on international locations consisting of China, the monetary crisis that started in 2008, and the emergence of local or international disruptions jeopardizing the proper functioning of global value chains. Under those premises, the tactics of reshoring (relocation of production to the country of beginning) and nearshoring (outsourcing production to nations near the origin) were increasing in recent years, facilitating manipulate of production, reducing transportation costs, and gaining agility within the face of disruptions on price chains. The COVID-19 disaster has been an example of disruption, interrupting and unbalancing the functioning of worldwide fee chains, which has caused search for nearer alternatives, theoretically less fragile.

These nearshoring processes are of unique interest within the Mediterranean vicinity, as they support alternate family members among territories of the place and encourage the development of connectivity between each beaches, selling local integration. In addition, there may be additionally the impact at the us of a website hosting relocated agencies, contributing to its improvement. But in a long-time period view, an excellent commercial enterprise environment and green logistics ought to be supplied so as to entice and keep ability agencies.

Secondly, the fourth commercial revolution. Although popularly called digitalisation, the fourth commercial revolution is based on the integration and mutual leverage of existing technologies to benefit in productiveness and transparency, as well as to improve products with digital abilities and asset control, among others. It is primarily based on key allowing technologies, which may be adopted and advanced steadily, given their scalability. The transport and logistics area can take benefit of the revel in of other sectors to selectively adopt these new technologies and obtain large blessings, with out the risks that beyond technological changes transmitted. The need to renew paintings and economic activity after the primary wave of the pandemic, making certain the safety of the population, helped to visualize the excessive capability for the application and improvement of these technology in the specific sectors of pastime.

The technology of the fourth commercial revolution with a ability effect on delivery and logistics substantially include synthetic intelligence leveraging Big Data Analysis, robotics and automation, the Internet of Things (IoT), autonomous automobiles and drones, augmented and virtual reality, commercial 3D printing, digital platforms and blockchain, amongst others. For instance, an multiplied connectivity and visibility of value chain may be accomplished thru a mixture of IoT, cloud computing and synthetic intelligence.

The ultra-modern fashion is to increase the resilience of fee chains. The COVID19 has had a excessive effect on worldwide price chains. The brief closure of manufacturing centres and the interruption of sea, land and air shipping offerings not related to primary necessities disrupted the operation of fee chains. Different speeds of healing round the arena and modifications in intake styles related to ecommerce and stock-building in anticipation of new waves of the pandemic contributed to increase alternate flows. But this unexpected boom has also worried adjustments inside the operation of value chains with admire to the prepandemic length which includes the increase of field freight costs. This disruption due to the COVID-19 and subsequent alterations have made the idea of resilience advantage prominence.

This resilience is linked to sustainability. Climate alternate and its results can have a main effect at the resilience of value chains. Sustainability was the principle mission for shipping and logistics zone before the health crisis, in line with the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Climate Agreement. The COVID19 disaster is a wake-up call to redouble institutions’ efforts and commitment. In this experience, the European Commission, in the framework of the European Green Deal and according with the EU Climate Law of 14 July 2021, targets to lessen its net emissions of greenhouse gases with the aid of at least by fifty five% compared to 1990 tiers. Transport plays a relevant function in this reduction.

Commitment to an optimised delivery connectivity
The above traits provide a framework that, crossed with the reflections of the special specialists participating on this initiative, allows us to visualise some key ideas for the transport and logistics sector in a medium and long term situation.

It’s about taking benefit of the momentum and having a bet on the place. The impact of the COVID-19 has brought about envisage a scenario of trade and acceleration of trends including the fourth industrial revolution and sustainability. It is necessary to trust in its capability and, first and most important, invest in its transport infrastructure to get rid of bottlenecks, especially on the southern shore, which avoid Mediterranean connectivity, and to foster the improvement of Africa-Europe price chains. It might be of extraordinary assist in consolidating nearshoring procedures and growing the resilience of fee chains. Following the example of the Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) of the European Union and its precedence corridors, the workout of planning and identification of infrastructures on the southern shore is already accomplished, either through the GTMO 5+5 Multimodal Network of Transport Infrastructure (approved and centered at the Maghreb international locations) with its trans-Maghreb corridor at the leading edge or by the TransMediterranean Transport Network (TMN-T) (pending approval and targeted on the southern shore of the Mediterranean). What stays to be completed is a company commitment to its implementation and investment.

A 2nd end is the visualisation of ports as key factors of this nearby community. They are the main gateway for goods inside and outside of the area, however they may be also the primary mode of connection between the territories of the region. Therefore, it is essential to inspire the development of efficient intraregional maritime connections that contribute to strengthening intraregional alternate flows, fostering motorways of the ocean. But in addition, it’s far essential to look inland and make sure properly reference to their port network, promoting multimodality. They are key factors to encourage nearshoring. Ports are the assembly factor of land shipping and maritime shipping.

In addition to the bodily connectivity, virtual connectivity and gear related to the fourth business revolution have won prominence. They have come to stay. The health crisis and the corresponding protection measures adopted have highlighted how the software of sure technology can make a contribution to the protection, reliability, robustness, transparency and sustainability of value chains and delivery networks. So, their resilience may even improve. This consists of the use of technology which include IoT or AI, the dematerialisation of transport files, cooperation, and consider among actors, amongst others. Applicable to one of a kind modes of transport, the adoption of interoperable technological answers all through the territory is an added fee for the integration and efficient operation of transport networks.

The harmonisation of guidelines additionally applies to all modes of delivery, both for the shipping of passengers and items. It is the principle device for facilitating delivery, guaranteeing a smooth operation of the transport network and reaping benefits resilience of fee chains, however additionally a device for upgrading shipping systems. Harmonization has been a habitual subject seeing that the beginning of local transport cooperation, led by means of UNECE and finally reinforced with technical assistance tasks launched by using the EC. The adoption of global conventions within the subject of shipping represents step one towards a homogeneous operation primarily based on using particular standards. Without harmonisation, one couldn’t speak of liberalisation of air delivery or efficient avenue pass-border transport.

The final of the conclusions to highlight is the position of decarbonisation of transport to achieve a sustainable shipping community. Despite the terrible effect of COVID-19, the pandemic provided the opportunity to visualize what it would be like to live in a more peaceful surroundings, with fewer GHG emissions and much less noise pollutants. This photograph represents an additional motivation for the arena’s commitment to the future of the planet. In this experience, sustainability is one of the necessities in the submit-COVID19 economic restoration and in the case of transport, it interprets into the commitment to less polluting manner of transport along with rail, support for multimodality to optimise delivery routes and inspire collaboration among modes, the promoting of urban shipping because the spine of a more sustainable urban mobility… But sustainability in transport should additionally be related to the transition to more sustainable and coffee-carbon strength structures, running to obtain a green strength network that supports the delivery community.

Concluding thoughts
In brief, the imaginative and prescient of the transport and logistics region in the Western Mediterranean in a submit-COVID-19 technology refers to an optimised shipping connectivity, with ports because the backbone of the multimodal transport network, way to its contribution to the monetary improvement. A network that enhances links between different modes of transport and connectivity amongst territories of the region, mainly between the 2 beaches of the Mediterranean. In addition, thanks to this connectivity and the methods of harmonisation, it favours local integration. Finally, using digital gear and technology contributes to optimisation and sustainability of the community and to the coordination and cooperation between their actors.

The initiative Mediterranean delivery and logistics in a post-COVID-19 generation: potentialities and opportunities aimed to construct place growing a collective expertise from contributions of worldwide establishments and professionals from the location.

This procedure of studies, mirrored image and socialisation has highlighted the situation of transformation that is experiencing the shipping and logistics area, improved by way of the COVID-19.

This transformation continues to be alive and that will want to be observed carefully to take advantage of the possibilities that can stand up to build a more sustainable, secure, reachable and connected transport device.

In the interim, we need to take the possibility to continue working collectively, producing and sharing knowledge, establishing dialogues at the priorities of the region and identifying common visions and strategies.

References