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Contested British Rulers

Contested British Rulers

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Kings and Queens of England & Britain

There have been sixty one monarchs of England and Britain spread over a duration of approximately 1200 years.

English Kings
SAXON KINGS
EGBERT 827 – 839
Egbert Ecgherht turned into the primary monarch to set up a solid and sizable rule over all of Anglo-Saxon England. After getting back from exile at the court docket of Charlemagne in 802, he regained his country of Wessex. Following his conquest of Mercia in 827, he managed all of England south of the Humber. After further victories in Northumberland and North Wales, he’s recognized through the name Bretwalda Anglo-Saxon, ruler of the British. A 12 months before he died aged almost 70, he defeated a blended pressure of Danes and Cornish at Hingston Down in Cornwall. He is buried at Winchester in Hampshire.

AETHELWULF 839-858
King of Wessex, son of Egbert and father of Alfred the Great. In 851 Aethelwulf defeated a Danish navy at the struggle of Oakley even as his eldest son Aethelstan fought and defeated a Viking fleet off the coast of Kent, in what is thought to be the first naval struggle in recorded English records. A especially spiritual guy, Athelwulf travelled to Rome with his son Alfred to peer the Pope in 855.
AETHELBALD 858 – 860
The second son of Aethelwulf, Æthelbald was born around 834. He changed into crowned at Kingston-upon-Thames in southwest London, after forcing his father to abdicate upon his return from pilgrimage to Rome. Following his father’s dying in 858, he married his widowed stepmother Judith, however beneath pressure from the church the wedding became annulled after most effective a yr. He is buried at Sherbourne Abbey in Dorset.

AETHELBERT 860 – 866
Became king following the death of his brother Theobald. Like his brother and his father, Ethelbert pictured to the proper changed into topped at Kingston-upon-Thames. Shortly after his succession a Danish army landed and sacked Winchester before being defeated via the Saxons. In 865 the Viking Great Heathen Army landed in East Anglia and swept throughout England. He is buried at Sherborne Abbey.

AETHELRED I 866 – 871
Aethelred succeeded his brother Aethelbert. His reign turned into one long conflict with the Danes who had occupied York in 866, establishing the Viking nation of Yorvik. When the Danish Army moved south Wessex itself became threatened, and so together with his brother Alfred, they fought numerous battles with the Vikings at Reading, Ashdown and Basing. Aethelred suffered serious injuries all through the following principal warfare at Meretun in Hampshire; he died of his wounds quickly after at Witchampton in Dorset, wherein he was buried.

ALFRED THE GREAT 871 – 899 – son of AETHELWULF
Born at Wantage in Berkshire around 849, Alfred turned into nicely knowledgeable and is stated to have visited Rome on two occasions. He had proven himself to be a sturdy leader in many battles, and as a sensible ruler managed to relaxed five uneasy years of peace with the Danes, before they attacked Wessex once more in 877. Alfred become compelled to retreat to a small island within the Somerset Levels and it became from here that he masterminded his comeback, possibly ‘burning the cakes‘ for that reason. With essential victories at Edington, Rochester and London, Alfred installed Saxon Christian rule over first Wessex, and then on to most of England. To relaxed his hard received obstacles Alfred based a permanent military and an embryonic Royal Navy. To at ease his location in records, he started out the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles.

EDWARD (The Elder) 899 – 924
Succeeded his father Alfred the Great. Edward retook southeast England and the Midlands from the Danes. Following the dying of his sister Aethelflaed of Mercia, Edward unites the kingdoms of Wessex and Mercia. In 923, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles document that the Scottish King Constantine II recognises Edward as father and lord. The following 12 months, Edward is killed in a conflict towards the Welsh close to Chester. His frame is back to Winchester for burial.

ATHELSTAN 924 – 939
Son of Edward the Elder, Athelstan extended the bounds of his nation on the Battle of Brunanburh in 937. In what is stated to be one of the bloodiest battles ever fought on British soil, Athelstan defeated a combined navy of Scots, Celts, Danes and Vikings, claiming the name of King of all Britain. The battle noticed for the primary time character Anglo-Saxon kingdoms being introduced together to create a single and unified England. Athelstan is buried in Malmesbury, Wiltshire.

EDMUND 939 – 946
Succeeded his half-hassle Athelastan as king at the smooth age of 18, having already fought alongside him at the Batlle of Brunanburh two years earlier. He re-mounted Anglo-Saxon manipulate over northern England, which had fallen lower back beneath Scandinavian rule following the demise of Athelstan. Aged simply 25, and at the same time as celebrating the banquet of Augustine, Edmund became stabbed by way of a robber in his royal hall at Pucklechurch close to Bath. His two sons, Eadwig and Edgar, had been possibly taken into consideration too younger to turn out to be kings.

EADRED 946 – 955
The son of Edward the Elder by using his third marriage to Eadgifu, Eadred succeeded his brother Edmund following his untimely dying. He observed within the family lifestyle of defeating Norsemen, expelling the last Scandinavian King of York, Eric Bloodaxe, in 954. A deeply religious man, Eadred suffered a critical belly ailment that could in the end prove fatal. Eadred died in his early 30s, single and without an heir, at Frome in Somerset. He is buried in Winchester.

EADWIG 955 – 959
The eldest son of Edmund I, Eadwig was approximately 16 whilst he turned into topped king at Kingston-upon-Thames in southeast London. Legend has it that his coronation needed to be behind schedule to allow Bishop Dunstan to prise Eadwig from his mattress, and from among the arms of his strumpet and the strumpets’ mother. Perhaps unimpressed by way of the interruption, Eadwig had Dunstan exiled to France. Eadwig died in Gloucester while he became just 20, the occasions of his death are not recorded.

EDGAR 959 – 975
The youngest son of Edmund I, Edgar had been in dispute along with his brother concerning succession to the throne for a few years. Following Eadwig’s mysterious dying, Edgar immediately recalled Dunstan from exile, making him Archbishop of Canterbury in addition to his private adviser. Following his cautiously planned via Dunstan coronation in Bath in 973, Edgar marched his army to Chester, to be met by means of six kings of Britain. The kings, such as the King of Scots, King of Strathclyde and various princes of Wales, are stated to have signalled their allegiance to Edgar by rowing him in his nation barge throughout the River Dee.

EDWARD THE MARTYR 975 – 978
Eldest son of Edgar, Edward was topped king whilst elderly just 12. Although supported by way of Archbishop Dunstan, his declare to the throne was contested by means of supporters of his an awful lot more youthful half-brother Aethelred. The ensuing dispute among rival factions in the church and nobility nearly caused civil warfare in England. Edward’s short reign ended when he was murdered at Corfe Castle by means of fans of Aethelred, after just two and half years as king. The identify martyr changed into a effect of him being seen as a sufferer of his stepmother’s aims for her own son Aethelred.

AETHELRED II THE UNREADY 978 – 1016
Aethelred become not able to organise resistance in opposition to the Danes, earning him the nickname unready, or badly cautioned. He have become king aged about 10, however fled to Normandy in 1013 while Sweyn Forkbeard, King of the Danes invaded England.
Sweyn was mentioned King of England on Christmas Day 1013 and made his capital at Gainsborough, Lincolnshire. He died simply 5 weeks later.
Aethelred again in 1014 after Sweyn’s death. The the rest of Aethelred’s reign turned into one in all a regular kingdom of war with Sweyn’s son Canute.

EDMUND II IRONSIDE 1016 – 1016
The son of Aethelred II, Edmund had led the resistance to Canute’s invasion of England since 1015. Following the loss of life of his father, he become chosen king by way of the good people of London. The Witan the king’s council but elected Canute. Following his defeat on the Battle of Assandun, Edmund made a percent with Canute to divide the dominion between them. This treaty ceded manage of all of England, with the exception of Wessex, to Canute. It also stated that after one of the kings died the opposite could take all of England… Edmund died later that year, probably assassinated.

CANUTE (CNUT THE GREAT) THE DANE 1016 – 1035
Canute became king of all England following the dying of Edmund II. The son of Sweyn Forkbeard, he dominated well and received favour together with his English subjects by using sending most of his military again to Denmark. In 1017, Canute married Emma of Normandy, the widow of Aethelred II and divided England into the 4 earldoms of East Anglia, Mercia, Northumbria and Wessex. Perhaps stimulated through his pilgrimage to Rome in 1027, legend has it that he wanted to illustrate to his subjects that as a king he turned into no longer a god, he ordered the tide no longer to are available in, knowing this would fail.

HAROLD I 1035 – 1040
Also referred to as Harold Harefoot, in recognition of his pace and talent as a hunter. Harold became the illegitimate son of Canute; he claimed the English crown on the death of his father while his half of-brother Harthacanute, the rightful inheritor, changed into in Denmark fighting to protect his Danish country. Harold died 3 years into his reign, just weeks earlier than Harthacanute became because of invade England with an army of Danes. He became buried in Westminster Abbey before Harthacanute had his frame dug up, beheaded, and thrown into the Thames. His bits have been later gathered and re-buried at St. Clement Danes in London.

HARTHACANUTE 1040 – 1042
The son of Cnut the Great and Emma of Normandy, Harthacanute sailed to England with his mom, accompanied by a fleet of sixty two warships, and was at once familiar as king. Perhaps to soothe his mom, the year before he died Harthacanute invited his half of-brother Edward, Emma’s son from her first marriage to Aethelred the Unready, back from exile in Normandy. Harthacanute died at a wedding at the same time as toasting the health of the bride; he turned into elderly just 24 and became the last Danish king to rule England

EDWARD THE CONFESSOR 1042-1066
Following the dying of Harthacanute, Edward restored the rule of the House of Wessex to the English throne. A deeply pious and spiritual man, he presided over the rebuilding of Westminster Abbey, leaving tons of the strolling of the usa to Earl Godwin and his son Harold. Edward died childless, 8 days after the building work on Westminster Abbey had completed. With no natural successor, England became faced with a electricity battle for control of the throne.

HAROLD II 1066
Despite having no royal bloodline, Harold Godwin changed into elected king by the Witan a council of excessive rating nobles and religious leaders, following the loss of life of Edward the Confessor. The election end result didn’t meet with the approval of one William, Duke of Normandy, who claimed that his relative Edward had promised the throne to him several years in advance. Harold defeated an invading Norwegian military on the Battle of Stamford Bridge in Yorkshire, then marched south to confront William of Normandy who had landed his forces in Sussex. The dying of Harold on the Battle Of Hastings intended the stop of the English Anglo-Saxon kings and the start of the Normans.

HENRY I 1100-1135
Henry Beauclerc became the fourth and youngest son of William I. Well educated, he based a zoo at Woodstock in Oxfordshire to take a look at animals. He changed into known as the ‘Lion of Justice’ as he gave England appropriate legal guidelines, even supposing the punishments have been ferocious. His sons were drowned inside the White Ship so his daughter Matilda was made his successor. She was married to Geoffrey Plantagenet. When Henry died of meals poisoning, the Council taken into consideration a girl unfit to rule and so presented the throne to Stephen, a grandson of William I.

STEPHEN 1135-1154
Stephen changed into a totally susceptible king and the complete u . S . Became nearly destroyed via the constant raids by using the Scots and the Welsh. During Stephen’s reign the Norman barons wielded fantastic energy, extorting money and looting town and us of a. A decade of civil conflict called The Anarchy ensued while Matilda invaded from Anjou in 1139. A compromise turned into ultimately determined, beneath the terms of the Treaty of Westminster Matilda’s son Henry Plantagenet could succeed to the throne when Stephen died.
PLANTAGENET KINGS

HENRY II 1154-1189
Henry of Anjou become a sturdy king. A exquisite soldier, he prolonged his French lands until he dominated maximum of France. He laid the foundation of the English Jury System and raised new taxes scutage from the landholders to pay for a defense force force. Henry is broadly speaking remembered for his quarrel with Thomas Becket, and Becket’s subsequent homicide in Canterbury Cathedral on 29th December 1170. His sons grew to become against him, even his preferred John.

RICHARD I (The Lionheart) 1189 – 1199
Richard was the 0.33 son of Henry II. By the age of sixteen, he became leading his personal military putting down rebellions in France. Although topped King of England, Richard spent all however 6 months of his reign overseas, who prefer to apply the taxes from his nation to fund his various armies and navy ventures. He was the leading Christian commander all through the Third Crusade. On his manner lower back from Palestine, Richard was captured and held for ransom. The amount paid for his safe go back nearly bankrupt the united states. Richard died from an arrow-wound, far from the dominion that he so rarely visited. He had no kids.

JOHN 1199 -1216
John Lackland become the fourth child of Henry II. Short and fat, he become jealous of his dashing brother Richard I whom he succeeded. He became cruel, self-indulgent, selfish and avaricious, and the raising of punitive taxes united all the elements of society, clerical and lay, towards him. The Pope excommunicated him. On 15th June 1215 at Runnymede the barons forced John to signal Magna Carta, the Great Charter, which reinstated the rights of all his subjects. John died – from dysentery – a fugitive from all his enemies. He has been termed “the worst English king”.

HENRY III 1216 -1272
Henry become 9 years vintage whilst he have become king. Brought up by clergymen he have become devoted to church, art and studying. He turned into a vulnerable guy, ruled by way of churchmen and easily motivated with the aid of his wife’s French relations. In 1264 Henry changed into captured all through the rise up of barons led by Simon de Montfort and was pressured to installation a Parliament at Westminster, the start of the House of Commons. Henry changed into the greatest of all shoppers of medieval architecture and ordered the rebuilding of Westminster Abbey inside the Gothic style.

EDWARD I 1272 – 1307
Edward Longshanks became a statesman, lawyer and soldier. He formed the Model Parliament in 1295, bringing the knights, clergy and the Aristocracy, as well as the Lords and Commons together for the primary time. Aiming at a united Britain, he defeated the Welsh chieftains and created his eldest son Prince of Wales. He was called the ‘Hammer of the Scots’ for his victories in Scotland and brought the famous coronation stone from Scone to Westminster. When his first spouse Eleanor died, he escorted her frame from Grantham in Lincolnshire to Westminster, putting in Eleanor Crosses at each resting place. He died at the manner to combat Robert Bruce.

EDWARD II 1307 – deposed 1327
Edward became a vulnerable and incompetent king. He had many favourites, Piers Gaveston being the most infamous. He changed into crushed by means of the Scots on the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. Edward became deposed and held captive in Berkeley Castle in Gloucestershire. His spouse joined her lover Mortimer in deposing him: via their orders he changed into murdered in Berkley Castle – as legend has it, via having a purple-hot poker thrust up his anus! His lovely tomb in Gloucester Cathedral was erected by way of his son, Edward III.

EDWARD III 1327 – 1377
Son of Edward II, he reigned for fifty years. His ambition to overcome Scotland and France plunged England into the Hundred Years War, beginning in 1338. The two incredible victories at Crecy and Poitiers made Edward and his son, the Black Prince, the maximum renowned warriors in Europe, however the war become very costly. The outbreak of bubonic plague, the ‘Black Death’ in 1348-1350 killed half of the population of England.

RICHARD II 1377 – deposed 1399
The son of the Black Prince, Richard turned into extravagant, unjust and faithless. In 1381 came the Peasants Revolt, led by means of Wat Tyler. The rebel was positioned down with fantastic severity. The surprising loss of life of his first wife Anne of Bohemia absolutely unbalanced Richard and his extravagance, acts of revenge and tyranny turned his topics towards him. In 1399 Henry of Lancaster again from exile and deposed Richard, becoming elected King Henry IV. Richard become murdered, probably by using hunger, in Pontefract Castle in 1400.

HENRY IV 1399 – 1413
The son of John of Gaunt (0.33 son of Edward III), Henry returned from exile in France to reclaim his estates formerly seized through Richard II; he changed into universal as king via Parliament. Henry spent maximum of his 13 12 months reign defending himself against plots, rebellions and assassination attempts. In Wales Owen Glendower declared himself Prince of Wales and led a country wide uprising against English rule. Back in England, Henry had extremely good difficulty in retaining the guide of both the clergy and Parliament and between 1403-08 the Percy own family launched a chain of rebellions towards him. Henry, the first Lancastrian king, died exhausted, likely of leprosy, on the age of 45.

HENRY V 1413 – 1422
The son of Henry IV, he turned into a pious, stern and skilful soldier. Henry had honed his excellent soldiering talents setting down the various rebellions launched against his father and had been knighted whilst elderly simply 12. He pleased his nobles by renewing the warfare with France in 1415. In the face of exceptional odds he beat the French at the Battle of Agincourt, dropping just 400 of his personal squaddies with more than 6,000 Frenchmen killed. On a 2nd expedition Henry captured Rouen, turned into acknowledged as the subsequent King of France and married Catherine, the daughter of the lunatic French king. Henry died of dysentery whilst campaigning in France and before he could succeed to the French throne, leaving his 10-month vintage son as King of England and France.

HENRY VI 1422 – deposed 1461 Beginning of the Wars of the Roses
Gentle and retiring, he came to the throne as a child and inherited a losing conflict with France, the Hundred Years War eventually finishing in 1453 with the lack of all French lands except for Calais. The king had an assault of intellectual illness that was hereditary in his mother’s circle of relatives in 1454 and Richard Duke of York became made Protector of the Realm. The House of York challenged Henry VI’s right to the throne and England become plunged into civil struggle. The Battle of St Albans in 1455 changed into received by using the Yorkists. Henry changed into restored to the throne in brief in 1470. Henry’s son, Edward, Prince of Wales become killed at the Battle of Tewkesbury in the future earlier than Henry changed into murdered in the Tower of London in 1471. Henry based both Eton College and King’s College, Cambridge, and each yr the Provosts of Eton and King’s College lay roses and lilies at the altar which now stands wherein he died.

EDWARD IV 1461- 1483
He become the son of Richard Duke of York and Cicely Neville, and now not a famous king. His morals were negative (he had many mistresses and had as a minimum one illegitimate son) or even his contemporaries disapproved of him. Edward had his rebellious brother George, Duke of Clarence, murdered in 1478 on a rate of treason. During his reign the primary printing press become set up in Westminster through William Caxton. Edward died unexpectedly in 1483 leaving two sons elderly 12 and 9, and five daughters.

EDWARD V 1483 – 1483
Edward become absolutely born in Westminster Abbey, wherein his mom Elizabeth Woodville had sought sanctuary from the Lancastrians at some point of the Wars of the Roses. The eldest son of Edward IV, he succeeded to the throne on the gentle age of 13 and reigned for only months, the shortest-lived monarch in English records. He and his brother Richard have been murdered within the Tower of London – it’s far stated on the orders of his uncle Richard Duke of Gloucester. Richard (III) declared The Princes within the Tower illegitimate and named himself rightful inheritor to the crown.

RICHARD III 1483 – 1485 End of the Wars of the Roses
Brother of Edward IV. The ruthless extinction of all individuals who opposed him and the alleged murders of his nephews made his rule very unpopular. In 1485 Henry Richmond, descendant of John of Gaunt, father of Henry IV, landed in west Wales, gathering forces as he marched into England. At the Battle of Bosworth Field in Leicestershire he defeated and killed Richard in what turned into to be the closing essential struggle in the Wars of the Roses. Archaeological investigations at a car park in Leicester for the duration of 2012 discovered a skeleton which became notion to have been that of Richard III, and this become confirmed on the 4th February 2013. His body become re-interred at Leicester Cathedral on twenty second March 2015.

HENRY VII 1485 – 1509
When Richard III fell on the Battle of Bosworth, his crown changed into picked up and placed on the head of Henry Tudor. He married Elizabeth of York and so united the two warring homes, York and Lancaster. He become a skillful flesh presser but avaricious. The fabric wealth of the u . S . Elevated significantly. During Henry’s reign playing cards were invented and the portrait of his wife Elizabeth has seemed eight times on every % of cards for almost 500 years.

HENRY VIII 1509 – 1547
The exceptional acknowledged fact approximately Henry VIII is that he had six better halves! Most school kids analyze the following rhyme to assist them don’t forget the fate of every wife: “Divorced, Beheaded, Died: Divorced, Beheaded, Survived”. His first wife changed into Catherine of Aragon, his brothers widow, whom he later divorced to marry Anne Boleyn. This divorce caused the split from Rome and Henry declared himself the top of the Church Of England. The Dissolution of the Monasteries began in 1536, and the money gained from this helped Henry to result in an effective Navy. In an attempt to have a son, Henry married four similarly better halves, but simplest one son was born, to Jane Seymour. Henry had two daughters both to grow to be rulers of England – Mary, daughter of Catherine of Aragon, and Elizabeth, daughter of Anne Boleyn

EDWARD VI 1547 – 1553
The son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, Edward was a sickly boy; it’s miles notion he suffered from tuberculosis. Edward succeeded his father at the age of nine, the government being carried on by using a Council of Regency together with his uncle, Duke of Somerset, styled Protector. Even even though his reign become brief, many men made their mark. Cranmer wrote the Book of Common Prayer and the uniformity of worship helped turn England into a Protestant State. After Edward’s loss of life there was a dispute over the succession. As Mary changed into Catholic, Lady Jane Grey became named as the next in line to the throne. She changed into proclaimed Queen however Mary entered London with her supporters and Jane become taken to the Tower. She reigned for handiest 9 days. She was completed in 1554, elderly 17.

MARY I (Bloody Mary) 1553 – 1558
Daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. A religious Catholic, she married Philip of Spain. Mary tried to implement the wholesale conversion of England to Catholicism. She carried this out with the maximum severity. The Protestant bishops, Latimer, Ridley and Archbishop Cranmer had been among those burnt on the stake. The vicinity, in Broad Street Oxford, is marked by using a bronze cross. The u . S . Became plunged right into a bitter blood bathtub, that is why she is remembered as Bloody Mary. She died in 1558 at Lambeth Palace in London.

ELIZABETH I 1558-1603
The daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, Elizabeth was a top notch girl, noted for her mastering and information. From first to last she changed into famous with the people and had a genius for the selection of capable advisors. Drake, Raleigh, Hawkins, the Cecils, Essex and lots of many greater made England reputable and feared. The Spanish Armada was decisively defeated in 1588 and Raleigh’s first Virginian colony turned into based. The execution of Mary Queen of Scots marred what turned into a wonderful time in English history. Shakespeare became additionally at the peak of his recognition. Elizabeth by no means married.

British Monarchs
THE STUARTS
JAMES I and VI of Scotland 1603 -1625
James become the son of Mary Queen of Scots and Lord Darnley. He turned into the first king to rule over Scotland and England. James was extra of a student than a man of movement. In 1605 the Gunpowder Plot became hatched: Guy Fawkes and his Catholic friends tried to blow up the Houses of Parliament, but had been captured before they could do so. James’s reign noticed the book of the Authorised Version of the Bible, even though this brought on troubles with the Puritans and their attitude towards the set up church. In 1620 the Pilgrim Fathers sailed for America of their ship The Mayflower.

CHARLES 1 1625 – 1649 English Civil War
The son of James I and Anne of Denmark, Charles believed that he dominated with the aid of Divine Right. He encountered difficulties with Parliament from the beginning, and this brought about the outbreak of the English Civil War in 1642. The struggle lasted 4 years and following the defeat of Charles’s Royalist forces via the New Model Army, led by using Oliver Cromwell, Charles changed into captured and imprisoned. The House of Commons tried Charles for treason in opposition to England and whilst located guilty he become condemned to dying. His dying warrant states that he changed into beheaded on 30th January 1649. Following this the British monarchy changed into abolished and a republic referred to as the Commonwealth of England became declared.

THE COMMONWEALTH
OLIVER CROMWELL, Lord Protector 1653 – 1658
Cromwell turned into born at Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire in 1599, the son of a small landowner. He entered Parliament in 1629 and have become active in events main to the Civil War. A main Puritan figure, he raised cavalry forces and organised the New Model Army, which he brought about victory over the Royalists at the Battle of Naseby in 1645. Failing to gain agreement on constitutional trade in government with Charles I, Cromwell become a member of a Special Commission that attempted and condemned the king to death in 1649. Cromwell declared Britain a republic ‘The Commonwealth’ and he went on to turn out to be its Lord Protector.
Cromwell went on to crush the Irish clans and the Scots loyal to Charles II among 1649 and 1651. In 1653 he sooner or later expelled the corrupt English parliament and with the agreement of military leaders have become Lord Protector (King in all however name)

RICHARD CROMWELL, Lord Protector 1658 – 1659
Richard was the 0.33 son of Oliver Cromwell, he become appointed the second one ruling Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, serving for just nine months. Unlike his father, Richard lacked army enjoy and as such didn’t advantage admire or help from his New Model Army. Richard became subsequently ‘persuaded’ to renounce from his function as Lord Protector and exiled himself to France till 1680, when he returned to England.

THE RESTORATION
CHARLES II 1660 – 1685
Son of Charles I, also called the Merry Monarch. After the crumble of the Protectorate following the demise of Oliver Cromwell and the flight of Richard Cromwell to France, the Army and Parliament asked Charles to take the throne. Although very popular he became a susceptible king and his foreign coverage became inept. He had 13 known mistresses, one of whom became Nell Gwyn. He fathered numerous illegitimate children however no inheritor to the throne. The Great Plague in 1665 and the Great Fire of London in 1666 took place throughout his reign. Many new buildings had been built at the moment. St. Paul’s Cathedral changed into constructed by way of Sir Christopher Wren and also many churches nonetheless to be visible today.

JAMES II and VII of Scotland 1685 – 1688
The 2d surviving son of Charles I and more youthful brother of Charles II. James were exiled following the Civil War and served in both the French and Spanish Army. Although James converted to Catholicism in 1670, his daughters had been raised as Protestants. James became very unpopular because of his persecution of the Protestant clergy and became typically hated by way of the humans. Following the Monmouth rebellion (Monmouth become an illegitimate son of Charles II and a Protestant) and the Bloody Assizes of Judge Jeffries, Parliament asked the Dutch prince, William of Orange to take the throne.
William turned into married to Mary, James II’s Protestant daughter. William landed in England and James fled to France where he died in exile in 1701.

WILLIAM III 1689 – 1702 and MARY II 1689 – 1694
On the 5 November 1688, William of Orange sailed his fleet of over 450 ships, unopposed by means of the Royal Navy, into Torbay harbour and landed his troops in Devon. Gathering neighborhood guide, he marched his military, now 20,000 strong, on to London in The Glorious Revolution. Many of James II’s army had defected to guide William, as well as James’s different daughter Anne. William and Mary have been to reign together, and William was to have the Crown for lifestyles after Mary died in 1694. James plotted to regain the throne and in 1689 landed in Ireland. William defeated James on the Battle of the Boyne and James fled again to France, as guest of Louis XIV.

ANNE 1702 – 1714
Anne turned into the second daughter of James II. She had 17 pregnancies but only one baby survived – William, who died of smallpox aged just 11. A staunch, excessive church Protestant, Anne was 37 years old when she succeeded to the throne. Anne turned into a close pal of Sarah Churchill, the Duchess of Marlborough. Sarah’s husband the Duke of Marlborough commanded the English Army in the War of Spanish Succession, winning a series of important battles with the French and gaining the u . S . A . A power by no means before attained in Europe. It turned into for the duration of Anne’s reign that the United Kingdom of Great Britain turned into created via the Union of England and Scotland.
After Anne’s loss of life the succession went to the closest Protestant relative of the Stuart line. This became Sophia, daughter of Elizabeth of Bohemia, James I ‘s simplest daughter, but she died a few weeks earlier than Anne and so the throne handed to her son George.

THE HANOVERIANS
GEORGE I 1714 -1727
Son of Sophia and the Elector of Hanover, excellent-grandson of James I. The fifty four 12 months vintage George arrived in England able to talk just a few words of English together with his 18 cooks and 2 mistresses in tow. George in no way discovered English, so the conduct of countrywide coverage turned into left to the government of the time with Sir Robert Walpole turning into Britain’s first Prime Minister. In 1715 the Jacobites (followers of James Stuart, son of James II) attempted to supplant George, however the strive failed. George spent little time in England – he preferred his cherished Hanover, even though he was implicated in the South Sea Bubble economic scandal of 1720.

GEORGE II 1727 – 1760
Only son of George I. He was greater English than his father, however nevertheless trusted Sir Robert Walpole to run the u . S . A .. George became the ultimate English king to steer his military into battle at Dettingen in 1743. In 1745 the Jacobites tried yet again to repair a Stuart to the throne. Prince Charles Edward Stuart, ‘Bonnie Prince Charlie’. Landed in Scotland. He become routed at Culloden Moor via the army beneath the Duke of Cumberland, referred to as ‘Butcher’ Cumberland. Bonnie Prince Charlie escaped to France with the assist of Flora MacDonald, and eventually died a drunkard’s dying in Rome.

GEORGE III1760 – 1820
He became a grandson of George II and the primary English-born and English-speaking monarch because Queen Anne. His reign was one among beauty and the age of some of the greatest names in English literature – Jane Austen, Byron, Shelley, Keats and Wordsworth. It become additionally the time of high-quality statesmen like Pitt and Fox and notable army guys like Wellington and Nelson. In 1773 the Boston Tea Party turned into the first sign of the issues that were to come in America. The American Colonies proclaimed their independence on July 4th 1776. George turned into nicely that means but suffered from a mental contamination because of intermittent porphyria and ultimately have become blind and insane. His son ruled as Prince Regent after 1811 until George’s demise.

GEORGE IV 1820 – 1830
Known as the First Gentleman of Europe. He had a love of artwork and structure but his non-public life was a large number, to position it mildly! He married twice, once in 1785 to Mrs. Fitzherbert, secretly as she changed into a Catholic, after which in 1795 to Caroline of Brunswick. Mrs. Fitzherbert remained the love of his life. Caroline and George had one daughter, Charlotte in 1796 however she died in 1817. George became considered a top notch wit, however become also a buffoon and his loss of life was hailed with alleviation!

WILLIAM IV 1830 – 1837
Known as the Sailor King (for 10 years the young Prince William, brother of George IV, served within the Royal Navy), he changed into the 1/3 son of George III. Before his accession he lived with a Mrs. Jordan, an actress, by whom he had ten kids. When Princess Charlotte died, he had to marry in an effort to comfy the succession. He married Adelaide of Saxe-Coburg in 1818. He had two daughters however they did no longer stay. He hated pomp and desired to dispense with the Coronation. The humans cherished him because of his lack of pretension. During his reign Britain abolished slavery inside the colonies in 1833. The Reform Act become exceeded in 1832, this extended the franchise to the center-classes on a foundation of belongings qualifications.

VICTORIA 1837 – 1901
Victoria became the only baby of Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg and Edward Duke of Kent, fourth son of George III. The throne Victoria inherited become susceptible and unpopular. Her Hanoverian uncles have been handled with irreverence. In 1840 she married her cousin Albert of Saxe-Coburg. Albert exerted exceptional affect over the Queen and until his loss of life turned into digital ruler of the u . S .. He changed into a pillar of respectability and left legacies to the UK, the Christmas Tree and the Great Exhibition of 1851. With the cash from the Exhibition several establishments have been developed, the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Science Museum, Imperial College and the Royal Albert Hall. The Queen withdrew from public existence after the demise of Albert in 1861 till her Golden Jubilee in 1887. Her reign saw the British Empire double in length and in 1876 the Queen have become Empress of India, the ‘Jewel inside the Crown’. When Victoria died in 1901, the British Empire and British world strength had reached their highest point. She had nine children, forty grand-children and 37 first-rate-grandchildren, scattered all over Europe.

HOUSE OF SAXE-COBURG AND GOTHA
EDWARD VII 1901 – 1910
A much cherished king, the other of his dour father. He cherished horse-racing, playing and ladies! This Edwardian Age changed into one of beauty. Edward had all the social graces and plenty of carrying pastimes, yachting and horse-racing – his horse Minoru received the Derby in 1909. Edward married the stunning Alexandra of Denmark in 1863 and they had six youngsters. The eldest, Edward Duke of Clarence, died in 1892 just earlier than he turned into to marry Princess Mary of Teck. When Edward died in 1910 it’s miles said that Queen Alexandra delivered his cutting-edge mistress Mrs. Keppel to his bedside to take her farewell. His high-quality recognised mistress become Lillie Langtry, the Jersey Lily.

HOUSE OF WINDSOR
Name modified in 1917

GEORGE V 1910 – 1936
George had not expected to be king, however whilst his elder brother died he became the inheritor-obvious. He had joined the Navy as a cadet in 1877 and cherished the sea. He become a bluff, hearty man with a quarter-deck way. In 1893 he married Princess Mary of Teck, his dead brother’s fiancee. His years at the throne were tough; the First World War in 1914 – 1918 and the troubles in Ireland which cause the introduction of the Irish Free State had been good sized issues. In 1932 he started the royal announces on Christmas Day and in 1935 he celebrated his Silver Jubilee. His latter years had been overshadowed by his difficulty about the Prince of Wales and his infatuation with Mrs. Simpson.

EDWARD VIII June 1936 – abdicated December 1936
Edward become the maximum famous Prince of Wales Britain has ever had. Consequently while he renounced the throne to marry Mrs. Wallis Simpson the u . S . A . Observed it almost not possible to consider. The human beings as an entire knew not anything about Mrs. Simpson until early in December 1936. Mrs. Simpson become an American, a divorcee and had two husbands nevertheless dwelling. This was unacceptable to the Church, as Edward had stated that he desired her to be topped with him on the Coronation which was to take vicinity the following May. Edward abdicated in favour of his brother and took the identify, Duke of Windsor. He went to stay overseas.

GEORGE VI 1936 – 1952
George become a shy and anxious guy with a totally awful stutter, the exact opposite of his brother the Duke of Windsor, but he had inherited the regular virtues of his father George V. He become very famous and nicely loved through the British people. The prestige of the throne changed into low while he became king, but his spouse Elizabeth and his mom Queen Mary have been great in their aid of him.
The Second World War commenced in 1939 and during the King and Queen set an instance of courage and fortitude. They remained at Buckingham Palace throughout the battle no matter the bombing. The Palace become bombed extra than as soon as. The two Princesses, Elizabeth and Margaret, spent the struggle years at Windsor Castle. George was in near touch with the Prime Minister, Winston Churchill for the duration of the conflict and both had to be dissuaded from touchdown with the troops in Normandy on D-Day! The post-conflict years of his reign have been ones of superb social change and noticed the start of the National Health Service. The entire united states flocked to the Festival of Britain held in London in 1951, 100 years after the Great Exhibition in the course of Victoria’s reign.

ELIZABETH II 1952 –
Elizabeth Alexandra Mary, or Lilibet to shut family, changed into born in London on 21 April 1926. Like her mother and father, Elizabeth changed into closely involved in the conflict attempt for the duration of the Second World War, serving in the girls’s branch of the British Army known as the Auxiliary Territorial Service, training as a driving force and mechanic. Elizabeth and her sister Margaret anonymously joined the crowded streets of London on VE Day to have a good time the quit of the battle. She married her cousin Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and that they had 4 youngsters: Charles, Anne, Andrew and Edward. When her father George VI died, Elizabeth have become Queen of seven Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon (now called Sri Lanka). Elizabeth’s coronation in 1953 turned into the primary to be televised, serving to boom popularity in the medium and doubling tv licence numbers in the UK. The massive popularity of the royal wedding ceremony in 2011 between the Queen’s grandson, Prince William and the commoner Kate Middleton, now the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, contemplated the high profile of the British Monarchy at domestic and abroad. 2012 turned into additionally an essential 12 months for the royal family, as the state celebrated the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee, her sixtieth year as Queen.
On 9th September 2015, Elizabeth have become Britain’s longest serving monarch, ruling longer than her top notch-splendid grandmother Queen Victoria who reigned for sixty three years and 216 days. Congratulations Ma’am; God Save the Queen!

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